Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    The role of HIF in immunity and inflammation
    Uncontrolled or non-resolving inflammation underpins a range of disease states including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and atherosclerosis. Hypoxia is a prominent feature of chronically inflamed tissues. This is due to elevated oxygen consumption by highly metabolically active inflamed resident cells and activated infiltrating immunocytes, as well as diminished oxygen supply due to vascular dysfunction. Tissue hypoxia can have a significant impact upon inflammatory signaling pathways in immune and non-immune cells and this can impact upon disease progression. In this review, we will discuss the relationship between tissue hypoxia and inflammation and identify how hypoxia-sensitive signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets in chronic inflammatory disease.
      979Scopus© Citations 106
  • Publication
    Liraglutide dictates macrophage phenotype in apolipoprotein E null mice during early atherosclerosis
    Background: Macrophages play a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Recent evidence has suggested the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, liraglutide, can attenuate pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages. We hypothesized that liraglutide could limit atherosclerosis progression in vivo via modulation of the inflammatory response. Methods: Human THP-1 macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages, from both wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and apolipoprotein E null mice (ApoE−/−) were used to investigate the effect of liraglutide on the inflammatory response in vitro. In parallel, ApoE−/− mice were fed a high-fat (60% calories from fat) high-cholesterol (1%) diet for 8 weeks to induce atherosclerotic disease progression with/without daily 300 μg/kg liraglutide administration for the final 6 weeks. Macrophages were analysed for MΦ1 and MΦ2 macrophage markers by Western blotting, RT-qPCR, ELISA and flow cytometry. Atherosclerotic lesions in aortae from ApoE−/− mice were analysed by en face staining and monocyte and macrophage populations from bone marrow derived cells analysed by flow cytometry. Results: Liraglutide decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE−/− mice coincident with a reduction in pro-inflammatory and increased anti-inflammatory monocyte/macrophage populations in vivo. Liraglutide decreased IL-1beta in MΦ0 THP-1 macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages from WT mice and induced a significant increase in the MΦ2 surface marker mannose receptor in both MΦ0 and MΦ2 macrophages. Significant reduction in total lesion development was found with once daily 300 μg/kg liraglutide treatment in ApoE−/− mice. Interestingly, liraglutide inhibited disease progression at the iliac bifurcation suggesting that it retards the initiation and development of disease. These results corresponded to attenuated MΦ1 markers (CCR7, IL-6 and TNF-alpha), augmented MΦ2 cell markers (Arg-1, IL-10 and CD163) and finally decreased MΦ1-like monocytes and macrophages from bone marrow-derived cells. Conclusions: This data supports a therapeutic role for liraglutide as an atheroprotective agent via modulating macrophage cell fate towards MΦ2 pro-resolving macrophages.
      327Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    Intra-articular delivery of a nanocomplex comprising salmon calcitonin, hyaluronic acid, and chitosan using an equine model of joint inflammation
    Polyelectrolyte nanoparticle constructs (NPs) comprising salmon calcitonin (sCT), chitosan (CS), and hyaluronic acid (HA) were previously established as having anti-inflammatory potential when injected via the intra-articular (i.a.) route to a mouse model. We attempted to translate the formulation to a large animal model, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated equine model of joint inflammation. The aim was to manufacture under aseptic conditions to produce sterile pyrogen-free NPs, to confirm physicochemical characteristics, and to test toxicity and efficacy in a pilot study. NP dispersions were successfully formulated using pharmaceutical-grade source materials and were aseptically manufactured under GMP-simulated conditions in a grade A modular aseptic processing workstation. The NP formulation had no detectable pathogen or endotoxin contamination. NPs were then tested versus a lactated Ringer’s solution control following single i.a. injections to the radiocarpal joints of two groups of four horses pre-treated with LPS, followed by arthrocentesis at set intervals over 1 week. There was no evidence of treatment-related toxicity over the period. While there were no differences between clinical read-outs of the NP and the control, two synovial fluid-derived biomarkers associated with cartilage turnover revealed a beneficial effect of NPs. In conclusion, NPs comprising well-known materials were manufactured for an equine i.a.-injectable pilot study and yielded no NP-attributable toxicity. Evidence of NP-associated benefit at the level of secondary endpoints was detected as a result of decreases in synovial fluid inflammatory biomarkers.
      368Scopus© Citations 9