Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Synthesis, structural, photophysical and electrochemical studies of various d-metal complexes of btp [2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine] ligands that give rise to the formation of metallo-supramolecular gels
    2,6-Bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (btp) is a terdentate binding motif that is synthesised modularly via the CuAAC reaction. Herein, we present the synthesis of ligands 1 and 2 and the investigation of the coordination chemistry, photophysical behaviour and electrochemistry of complexes of these with a number of d-metal ions (e.g. Ru(II), Ir(III), Ni(II) and Pt(II)). The X-ray crystal structures of ligand 1 and the complexes [Ru·22](PF6)Cl, [Ni·12](PF6)Cl and [Ir·1Cl3] are also presented. All of the complexes displayed non-classical triazolyl C–HCl− hydrogen bonding. All but one complex showed no metal-based luminescence at room temperature, while all of the Pt(II) complexes displayed luminescence at 77 K. The electrochemistry of the Ru(II) complexes was also studied and these complexes were found to have higher oxidation potentials than analogous compounds. The redox behaviour of [RuL2]2+ complexes with both 1 and 2 was nearly identical, while [Ru·1Cl2(DMSO)] was oxidised at significantly lower potential. We also show that the Ru(II) complex of 2, [Ru·22](PF6)Cl, gave rise to the formation of a metallo-supramolecular gel, the morphology of which was studied using scanning electron and helium ion microscopy.
      477Scopus© Citations 42
  • Publication
    Solvent-dependent switch of ligand donor ability and catalytic activity of ruthenium(II) complexes containing pyridinylidene amide (PYA) n-heterocyclic carbene hybrid ligands
    Chelating ligands incorporating both N-[1-alkylpyridin-4(1H)-ylidene]amide (PYA) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donor sites were prepared and used for the synthesis of ruthenium(II) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry, NMR, and UV–vis spectroscopy of the complexes indicate a solvent-dependent contribution of the limiting resonance structures associated with the ligand in solution. The neutral pyridylidene imine structure is more pronounced in apolar solvents (CH2Cl2), while the mesoionic pyridinium amide form is predominant in polar solvents (MeOH, DMSO). The distinct electronic properties of these hybrid PYA-NHC ligands in different solvents have a direct influence on the catalytic activity of the ruthenium center, e.g., in the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The activity in different solvents qualitatively correlates with the solvent permittivity.
      525Scopus© Citations 39
  • Publication
    Synthesis of pincer-type N-heterocyclic carbene palladium complexes with a hemilabile ligand and their application in cross-coupling catalysis
    Benzimidazolium salts containing both a neutral imine and a masked carboxylate functional group for potential metal chelation were prepared. Palladation of the ester-protected ligand afforded a N,C-bidentate carbene complex 4. Subsequent ester hydrolysis preserved the bidentate coordination mode and yielded complex 5 with a pending COOH group exclusively. However, when ester deprotection was carried out prior to metalation, the N,C,O-tridentate pincer-type coordinated palladium complex 7 was obtained. Proton-abstraction of the dangling COOH group in the bidentate ligand of complex 5 by treatment with a base led to the formation of the N,C,O-tridentate coordinated Pd system 7, and inversely, exposure of the tridentate bound Pd complex 7 with acid afforded the N,C-bidentate ligand coordination mode in complex 5, demonstrating hemilability of the oxygen donor site in the pincer ligand. All three palladium(II) complexes 4, 5, and 7 were evaluated in cross-coupling catalysis and revealed distinct activity differences that are dependent on the type of coupling (Suzuki vs. Heck) and the substrate (Ar-Br vs. Ar-Cl). These differences suggest that judicious choice of donor groups in pincer-type complexes is a viable strategy for catalyst optimization.
      312Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Synthesis, Photo-, and Electrochemistry of Ruthenium Bis(bipyridine) Complexes Comprising a N-heterocyclic Carbene Ligand
    Analogues of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ were prepared in which one pyridine ligand site is substituted by a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, that is, either by an imidazolylidene with a variable wingtip group R (R = Me, 3a; R = Et, 3b; R = iPr, 3c), or by a benzimidazolylidene (Me wingtip group, 3d), or by a 1,2,3-triazolylidene (Me wingtip group, 3e). All complexes were characterized spectroscopically, photophysically, and electrochemically. An increase of the size of the wingtip groups from Me to Et or iPr groups distorts the octahedral geometry (NMR spectroscopy) and curtails the reversibility of the ruthenium oxidation. NHC ligands with methyl wingtip groups display reversible ruthenium oxidation at a potential that reflects the donor properties of the NHC ligand (triazolylidene > imidazolylidene > benzimidazolylidene). The most attractive properties were measured for the triazolylidene ruthenium complex 3e, featuring the smallest gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) in the series (2.41 eV), a slightly red-shifted absorption profile, and reasonable excited-state lifetime (188 ns) when compared to [Ru(bpy)3]2+. These features demonstrate the potential utility of triazolylidene ruthenium complexes as photosensitizers for solar energy conversion.
      372Scopus© Citations 95