Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Genetic Deletion of Zebrafish Rab28 Causes Defective Outer Segment Shedding, but Not Retinal Degeneration
    The photoreceptor outer segment is the canonical example of a modified and highly specialized cilium, with an expanded membrane surface area in the form of disks or lamellae for efficient light detection. Many ciliary proteins are essential for normal photoreceptor function and cilium dysfunction often results in retinal degeneration leading to impaired vision. Herein, we investigate the function and localization of the ciliary G-protein RAB28 in zebrafish cone photoreceptors. CRISPR-Cas9 generated rab28 mutant zebrafish display significantly reduced shed outer segment material/phagosomes in the RPE at 1 month post fertilization (mpf), but otherwise normal visual function up to 21 dpf and retinal structure up to 12 mpf. Cone photoreceptor-specific transgenic reporter lines show Rab28 localizes almost exclusively to outer segments, independently of GTP/GDP nucleotide binding. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrates tagged Rab28 interacts with components of the phototransduction cascade, including opsins, phosphodiesterase 6C and guanylate cyclase 2D. Our data shed light on RAB28 function in cones and provide a model for RAB28-associated cone-rod dystrophy.
      263Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    Whole-Organism Developmental Expression Profiling Identifies RAB-28 as a Novel Ciliary GTPase Associated with the BBSome and Intraflagellar Transport
    Primary cilia are specialised sensory and developmental signalling devices extending from the surface of most eukaryotic cells. Defects in these organelles cause inherited human disorders (ciliopathies) such as retinitis pigmentosa and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), frequently affecting many physiological and developmental processes across multiple organs. Cilium formation, maintenance and function depend on intracellular transport systems such as intraflagellar transport (IFT), which is driven by kinesin-2 and IFT-dynein motors and regulated by the Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) cargo-adaptor protein complex, or BBSome. To identify new cilium-associated genes, we employed the nematode C. elegans, where ciliogenesis occurs within a short timespan during late embryogenesis when most sensory neurons differentiate. Using whole-organism RNA-Seq libraries, we discovered a signature expression profile highly enriched for transcripts of known ciliary proteins, including FAM-161 (FAM161A orthologue), CCDC-104 (CCDC104), and RPI-1 (RP1/RP1L1), which we confirm are cilium-localised in worms. From a list of 185 candidate ciliary genes, we uncover orthologues of human MAP9, YAP, CCDC149, and RAB28 as conserved cilium-associated components. Further analyses of C. elegans RAB-28, recently associated with autosomal-recessive cone-rod dystrophy, reveal that this small GTPase is exclusively expressed in ciliated neurons where it dynamically associates with IFT trains. Whereas inactive GDP-bound RAB-28 displays no IFT movement and diffuse localisation, GTP-bound (activated) RAB-28 concentrates at the periciliary membrane in a BBSome-dependent manner and undergoes bidirectional IFT. Functional analyses reveal that whilst cilium structure, sensory function and IFT are seemingly normal in a rab-28 null allele, overexpression of predicted GDP or GTP locked variants of RAB-28 perturbs cilium and sensory pore morphogenesis and function. Collectively, our findings present a new approach for identifying ciliary proteins, and unveil RAB28, a GTPase most closely related to the BBS protein RABL4/IFT27, as an IFT-associated cargo with BBSome-dependent cell autonomous and non-autonomous functions at the ciliary base.
      680Scopus© Citations 47
  • Publication
    Dawn and dusk peaks of outer segment phagocytosis, and visual cycle function require Rab28
    RAB28 is a farnesylated, ciliary G-protein. Patient variants in RAB28 are causative of autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), an inherited human blindness. In rodent and zebrafish models, the absence of Rab28 results in diminished dawn, photoreceptor, outer segment phagocytosis (OSP). Here, we demonstrate that Rab28 is also required for dusk peaks of OSP, but not for basal OSP levels. This study further elucidated the molecular mechanisms by which Rab28 controls OSP and inherited blindness. Proteomic profiling identified factors whose expression in the eye or whose expression at dawn and dusk peaks of OSP is dysregulated by loss of Rab28. Notably, transgenic overexpression of Rab28, solely in zebrafish cones, rescues the OSP defect in rab28 KO fish, suggesting rab28 gene replacement in cone photoreceptors is sufficient to regulate Rab28-OSP. Rab28 loss also perturbs function of the visual cycle as retinoid levels of 11-cRAL, 11cRP, and atRP are significantly reduced in larval and adult rab28 KO retinae (p <.05). These data give further understanding on the molecular mechanisms of RAB28-associated CRD, highlighting roles of Rab28 in both peaks of OSP, in vitamin A metabolism and in retinoid recycling.
      156Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Alternative Experimental Models of Ciliary Trafficking and Dysfunction in the Retina
    The cilia of cells constituent to the retina are fundamental to vision. Of the ∼250 genes causative of inherited retinal degeneration, 20% mediate functions related to photoreceptor primary cilium formation, structure or function. Primary cilia are sensory and signalling organelles emanating from the plasma membrane of most cells. They regulate a variety of biological processes, including left/right body axis asymmetry, limb patterning, central nervous system development and sensation. Cilia function by forming a specialised region of plasma membrane which concentrates specific signalling components, such as for sonic hedgehog signalling and phototransduction. Here, we review the roles of ciliary signalling and trafficking pathways in retinal biology and disease with a focus on the potential of non-rodent, metazoan experimental models for shedding light on these processes.