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  • Publication
    Report on capacity of airport infrastructure
    (Commission of the European Union Directorate-General for Transport DG VII-A4, 1999-03) ;
    This report examines the current capacity of the EU’s airport infrastructure and highlights in a general way the main factors determining that capacity. In the report, the nature and the role of airport services are detailed and the multi-service networked industry that characterises airport operations is described. The determination of airport capacity is examined. Detailed discussion is given of the influence which air traffic control factors, demand characteristics, environmental conditions and the engineering design and layout of the runway system will have on that capacity. The methods used to assess capacity and delay are also detailed. Extensive data is presented from the Association of European Airlines (AEA) and EUROCONTROL’s Centre for Delay Analysis (CODA) to sketch the current state of Europe’s system of large airports.and the extent to which existing infrastructure is congested. This system of airports represents the main infrastructure of Europe’s aviation sector. The options available to policy makers to improve the management and organisation of existing capacity are set out and critically discussed. Tables giving the advantages and disadvantages of different demand management policies and procedures are presented, thus summarising the extensive literature in this area. Following on from this, several important issues arising when capacity needs to be expanded are highlighted. A number of practical difficulties are pinpointed and the tradeoffs facing policymakers are explained. For instance, where liberalisation has encouraged airlines to increase their frequency of service by, among other things, utilising smaller aircraft, this has the effect of using up available capacity at airports faster than would otherwise have been the case. Policymakers can influence the average size of aircraft in a positive way (which will have significant environmental benefits) through the pricing or airport charging policy. The balance between facilitating growth particularly of new entrant carriers on one hand, and emphasising environmental and sustainability goals on the other, will have to be addressed. The final section of the report relates these discussions to the issue of interoperability and briefly outlines some of the important policy considerations in this area.
  • Publication
    Workshop report on European air transport scenarios
    (Commission of the European Union Directorate-General for Transport DG VII-A4, 1998-08) ;
    The aim of this small workshop of invited participants was to consider the prospects for the development of European air transport over the next two decades. It forms part of the air transport component of the EU's 4th Framework Programme's project MINIMISE (Managing Interoperability by Improvements in Transport System Organisation in Europe) and seeks to provide some expert views on how air transport policy at the Union level will need to evolve in order to meet the challenges of achieving optimal interoperability in the medium term. The overall project is multimodal in its orientation but this workshop touches upon other modes only in so far as they are relevant for the development of interoperability in the air transport sector. Interoperability can be defined in terms of reducing excessive impediments to the optimal efficiency with which various providers and users of passenger and freight transport can interact. The aim of the workshop was to provide for a wide ranging discussion, focused around a number of predetermined issues. These issues are -Development of external EU air transport relations -Policy regarding strategic airline alliances -Criteria for awarding subsidies for social based air services -Policy on predatory behaviour by airlines -The development of EU air cargo transport -Charging for the use of EU air transport infrastructure -Criteria for investing in new EU airport capacity. -The creation of improved air traffic management -Integration air transport with other modes The aim is not to come up with a blue print as to how these and other issues may be resolved but rather to consider how the adoption of different policy options within a variety of alternative futures (e.g. a larger EU area, faster or slower economic growth) will impact on EU air transport. The number of futures to be considered is very small, and involved taking just one or two extreme possibilities alongside an 'Expected Future'. The workshop took place at the Bartlett School, University College, London, UK, on 19th December 1997, and involved a small number of invited attendees. This report sets out the workshop’s discussions. Participants were not expected to produce any documentation, the report being written and revised in the light of participant feedback, by MINIMISE members.