Now showing 1 - 10 of 47
  • Publication
    Anatomically accurate model of EMG during index finger flexion and abduction derived from diffusion tensor imaging
    This study presents a modelling framework in which information on muscle fiber direction and orientation during contraction is derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and incorporated in a computational model of the surface electromyographic (EMG) signal. The proposed model makes use of the principle of reciprocity to simultaneously calculate the electric potentials produced at the recording electrode by charges distributed along an arbitrary number of muscle fibers within the muscle, allowing for a computationally efficient evaluation of extracellular motor unit action potentials. The approach is applied to the complex architecture of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the hand to simulate EMG during index finger flexion and abduction. Using diffusion tensor imaging methods, the results show how muscle fiber orientation and curvature in this intrinsic hand muscle change during flexion and abduction. Incorporation of anatomically accurate muscle architecture and other hand tissue morphologies enables the model to capture variations in extracellular action potential waveform shape across the motor unit population and to predict experimentally observed differences in EMG signal features when switching from index finger abduction to flexion. The simulation results illustrate how structural and electrical properties of the tissues comprising the volume conductor, in combination with fiber direction and curvature, shape the detected action potentials. Using the model, the relative contribution of motor units of different sizes located throughout the muscle under both conditions is examined, yielding a prediction of the detection profile of the surface EMG electrode array over the muscle cross-section.
      347Scopus© Citations 21
  • Publication
    Effect of oral glucose supplementation on surface EMG during fatiguing dynamic exercise
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oral glucose supplementation on the surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal recorded during a dynamic, fatiguing exercise protocol. Five healthy subjects participated in the study. Blood glucose concentration and sEMG signals from five upper leg muscles were recorded during a cycling exercise performed at 70% VO2peak until task failure, on two separate occasions. Glucose was consumed at 15 minute intervals throughout one trial. The median frequency of the sEMG was observed to increase progressively throughout the exercise, with a greater increase in the with glucose condition. This is in direct contrast to the typical decrease in median frequency known to occur during a fatiguing isometric contraction. The result may indicate an increase in Na+ - K+- AT Pase activity during fatiguing dynamic exercise resulting in an increase in muscle fiber membrane excitability due to membrane hyperpolarization.
      358Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Simple and customizable method for fabrication of high-aspect ratio microneedle molds using low-cost 3D printing
    We present a simple and customizable microneedle mold fabrication technique using a low-cost desktop SLA 3D printer. As opposed to conventional microneedle fabrication methods, this technique neither requires complex and expensive manufacturing facilities nor expertise in microfabrication. While most low-cost 3D-printed microneedles to date display low aspect ratios and poor tip sharpness, we show that by introducing a two-step “Print & Fill” mold fabrication method, it is possible to obtain high-aspect ratio sharp needles that are capable of penetrating tissue. Studying first the effect of varying design input parameters and print settings, it is shown that printed needles are always shorter than specified. With decreasing input height, needles also begin displaying an increasingly greater than specified needle base diameter. Both factors contribute to low aspect ratio needles when attempting to print sub-millimeter height needles. By setting input height tall enough, it is possible to print needles with high-aspect ratios and tip radii of 20–40 µm. This tip sharpness is smaller than the specified printer resolution. Consequently, high-aspect ratio sharp needle arrays are printed in basins which are backfilled and cured in a second step, leaving sub-millimeter microneedles exposed resulting microneedle arrays which can be used as male masters. Silicone female master molds are then formed from the fabricated microneedle arrays. Using the molds, both carboxymethyl cellulose loaded with rhodamine B as well as polylactic acid microneedle arrays are produced and their quality examined. A skin insertion study is performed to demonstrate the functional capabilities of arrays made from the fabricated molds. This method can be easily adopted by the microneedle research community for in-house master mold fabrication and parametric optimization of microneedle arrays.
      384Scopus© Citations 155
  • Publication
    Random Forest-based Algorithm for Sleep Spindle Detection in Infant EEG
    Sleep spindles are associated with normal brain development, memory consolidation and infant sleep-dependent brain plasticity and can be used by clinicians in the assessment of brain development in infants. Sleep spindles can be detected in EEG, however, identifying sleep spindles in EEG recordings manually is very time-consuming and typically requires highly trained experts. Research on the automatic detection of sleep spindles in infant EEGs has been limited to-date. In this study, we present a novel supervised machine learning-based algorithm to detect sleep spindles in infant EEG recordings. EEGs collected from 141 ex-term born infants and 6 ex-preterm born infants, recorded at 4 months of age (adjusted), were used to train and test the algorithm. Sleep spindles were annotated by experienced clinical physiologists as the gold standard. The dataset was split into training (81 ex-term), validation (30 ex-term), and testing (30 ex-term + 6 ex-preterm) set. 15 features were selected for input into a random forest algorithm. Sleep spindles were detected in the ex-term infant EEG test set with 92.1% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity. For ex-preterm born infants, the sensitivity and specificity were 80.3% and 91.8% respectively. The proposed algorithm has the potential to assist researchers and clinicians in the automated analysis of sleep spindles in infant EEG.
      409Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Gait Event Detection from Accelerometry using the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator
    Objective: A novel method based on the application of the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator is presented to estimate instances of initial contact (IC) and final contact (FC) from accelerometry during gait. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated against four existing gait event detection (GED) methods under three walking conditions designed to capture the variance of gait in real-world environments. Methods: A symmetric discrete approximation of the Teager-Kaiser energy operator was used to capture simultaneous amplitude and frequency modulations of the shank acceleration signal at IC and FC during flat treadmill walking, inclined treadmill walking, and flat indoor walking. Accuracy of estimated gait events were determined relative to gait events detected using force-sensitive resistors. The performance of the proposed algorithm was assessed against four established methods by comparing mean-absolute error, sensitivity, precision and F1-score values. Results: The proposed method demonstrated high accuracy for GED in all walking conditions, yielding higher F1-scores (IC: >0.98, FC: >0.9) and lower mean-absolute errors (IC: <0.018s, FC: <0.039s) than other methods examined. Estimated ICs from shank-based methods tended to exhibit unimodal distributions preceding the force-sensitive resistor estimated ICs, whereas estimated gait events for waist-based methods had quasi-uniform random distributions and lower accuracy. Conclusion: Compared to established gait event detection methods, the proposed method yielded comparably high accuracy for IC detection, and was more accurate than all other methods examined for FC detection. Significance: The results support the use of the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator for accurate automated GED across a range of walking conditions.
      788Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    Musculoskeletal modelling of muscle activation and applied external forces for the correction of scoliosis
    (BioMed Central, 2014-04-07) ;
    Background: This study uses biomechanical modelling and computational optimization to investigate muscle activation in combination with applied external forces as a treatment for scoliosis. Bracing, which incorporates applied external forces, is the most popular non surgical treatment for scoliosis. Non surgical treatments which make use of muscle activation include electrical stimulation, postural control, and therapeutic exercises. Electrical stimulation has been largely dismissed as a viable treatment for scoliosis, although previous studies have suggested that it can potentially deliver similarly effective corrective forces to the spine as bracing. Methods: The potential of muscle activation for scoliosis correction was investigated over different curvatures both with and without the addition of externally applied forces. The five King’s classifications of scoliosis were investigated over a range of Cobb angles. A biomechanical model of the spine was used to represent various scoliotic curvatures. Optimization was applied to the model to reduce the curves using combinations of both deep and superficial muscle activation and applied external forces. Results: Simulating applied external forces in combination with muscle activation at low Cobb angles (< 20 degrees) over the 5 King’s classifications, it was possible to reduce the magnitude of the curve by up to 85% for classification 4, 75% for classifications 3 and 5, 65% for classification 2, and 60% for classification 1. The reduction in curvature was less at larger Cobb angles. For King’s classifications 1 and 2, the serratus, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius muscles were consistently recruited by the optimization algorithm for activation across all Cobb angles. When muscle activation and external forces were applied in combination, lower levels of muscle activation or less external force was required to reduce the curvature of the spine, when compared with either muscle activation or external force applied in isolation. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that activation of superficial and deep muscles may be effective in reducing spinal curvature at low Cobb angles when muscle groups are selected for activation based on the curve type. The findings further suggest the potential for a hybrid treatment involving combined muscle activation and applied external forces at larger Cobb angles.
      268Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Alpha Band Cortico-Muscular Coherence Occurs in Healthy Individuals during Mechanically-Induced Tremor
    The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years) performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (p<.05). During isometric contractions CMC was systematically found in the beta band and sporadically observed in the alpha band. However, during the contractions against the spring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC) revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05). Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops.
      308Scopus© Citations 21
  • Publication
    Whole body oxygen uptake and evoked knee torque in response to low frequency electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles: V O2 frequency response to NMES
    Background: There is emerging evidence that isometric Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) may offer a way to elicit therapeutically significant increases in whole-body oxygen uptake in order to deliver aerobic exercise to patients unable to exercise volitionally, with consequent gains in cardiovascular health. The optimal stimulation frequency to elicit a significant and sustained pulmonary oxygen uptake has not been determined. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency response of the oxygen uptake and evoked torque due to NMES of the quadriceps muscles across a range of low frequencies spanning the twitch to tetanus transition. Methods: Ten healthy male subjects underwent bilateral NMES of the quadriceps muscles comprising eight 4 minute bouts of intermittent stimulation at selected frequencies in the range 1 to 12 Hz, interspersed with 4 minutes rest periods. Respiratory gases and knee extensor torque were simultaneously monitored throughout. Multiple linear regression was used to fit the resulting data to an energetic model which expressed the energy rate in terms of the pulse frequency, the torque time integral and a factor representing the accumulated force developed per unit time. Results: Additional oxygen uptake increased over the frequency range to a maximum of 564 (SD 114) ml min-1 at 12 Hz, and the respiratory exchange ratio was close to unity from 4 to 12 Hz. While the highest induced torque occurred at 12 Hz, the peak of the force development factor occurred at 6 Hz. The regression model accounted for 88% of the variability in the observed energetic response. Conclusions: Taking into account the requirement to avoid prolonged tetanic contractions and to minimize evoked torque, the results suggest that the ideal frequency for sustainable aerobic exercise is 4 to 5 Hz, which coincided in this study with the frequency above which significant twitch force summation occurred.
      579Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    Effect of dispersive conductivity and permittivity in volume conductor models of deep brain stimulation
    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dispersive tissue properties on the volume-conducted voltage waveforms and volume of tissue activated during deep brain stimulation. Inhomogeneous finite-element models were developed, incorporating a distributed dispersive electrode–tissue interface and encapsulation tissue of high and low conductivity, under both current controlled and voltage-controlled stimulation. The models were used to assess the accuracy of capacitive models, where material properties were estimated at a single frequency, with respect to the full dispersive models. The effect of incorporating dispersion in the electrical conductivity and relative permittivity was found to depend on both the applied stimulus and the encapsulation tissue surrounding the electrode. Under current-controlled stimulation, and during voltage-controlled stimulation when the electrode was surrounded by high-resistivity encapsulation tissue, the dispersive material properties of the tissue were found to influence the voltage waveform in the tissue, indicated by RMS errors between the capacitive and dispersive models of 20%–38% at short pulse durations. When the dispersive model was approximated by a capacitive model, the accuracy of estimates of the volume of tissue activated was very sensitive to the frequency at which material properties were estimated.When material properties at 1 kHz were used, the error in the volume of tissue activated by capacitive approximations was reduced to −4.33% and 11.10%, respectively, for current controlled and voltage-controlled stimulations, with higher errors observed when higher or lower frequencies were used.
      1202Scopus© Citations 52
  • Publication
    Multiple Frequencies in the Basal Ganglia in Parkinsons Disease
    (Advances in Electric and Electronic Engineering, 2015-09) ; ;
    In recent years, the authors have developed what appears to be a very successful phenomenological model for analyzing the role of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in alleviating the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. In this paper, we extend the scope of the model by using it to predict the generation of new frequencies from networks tuned to a specific frequency, or indeed not self-oscillatory at all. We have discussed two principal cases: firstly where the constituent systems are coupled in an excitatory-excitatory fashion, which we designate by ``+/+''; and secondly where the constituent systems are coupled in an excitatory-inhibitory fashion, which we designate ``+/-''. The model predicts that from a basic system tuned to tremor frequency we can generate an unlimited range of frequencies. We illustrate in particular, starting from systems which are initially non-oscillatory, that when the coupling coefficient exceeds a certain value, the system begins to oscillate at an amplitude which increases with the coupling strength. Another very interesting feature, which has been shown by colleagues of ours to arise through the coupling of complicated networks based on the physiology of the basal ganglia, can be illustrated by the root locus method which shows that increasing and decreasing frequencies of oscillation, existing simultaneously, have the property that their geometric mean remains substantially constant as the coupling strength is varied. We feel that with the present approach, we have provided another tool for understanding the existence and interaction of pathological oscillations which underlie, not only Parkinson's disease, but other conditions such as Tourette's syndrome, depression and epilepsy.