Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    REST is a hypoxia-responsive transcriptional repressor
    Cellular exposure to hypoxia results in altered gene expression in a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Discrete cohorts of genes can be either up- or down-regulated in response to hypoxia. While the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) is the primary driver of hypoxia-induced adaptive gene expression, less is known about the signalling mechanisms regulating hypoxia-dependent gene repression. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that equivalent numbers of genes are induced and repressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that nuclear localization of the Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) is induced in hypoxia and that REST is responsible for regulating approximately 20% of the hypoxia-repressed genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that REST-dependent gene repression is at least in part mediated by direct binding to the promoters of target genes. Based on these data, we propose that REST is a key mediator of gene repression in hypoxia.
      288Scopus© Citations 46
  • Publication
    Understanding complexity in the HIF signaling pathway using systems biology and mathematical modeling
    Hypoxia is a common micro-environmental stress which is experienced by cells during a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. The identification of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as the master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia transformed our understanding of the mechanism underpinning the hypoxic response at the molecular level and identified HIF as a potentially important new therapeutic target. It has recently become clear that multiple levels of regulatory control exert influence on the HIF pathway giving the response a complex and dynamic activity profile. These include positive and negative feedback loops within the HIF pathway as well as multiple levels of crosstalk with other signaling pathways. The emerging model reflects a multi-level regulatory network that affects multiple aspects of the physiologic response to hypoxia including proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Understanding the interplay between the molecular mechanisms involved in the dynamic regulation of the HIF pathway at a systems level is critically important in defining new appropriate therapeutic targets for human diseases including ischemia, cancer, and chronic inflammation. Here, we review our current knowledge of the regulatory circuits which exert influence over the HIF response and give examples of in silico model-based predictions of the dynamic behaviour of this system.
      392Scopus© Citations 15
  • Publication
    Basic fibroblast growth factor modifies the hypoxic response of human bone marrow stromal cells by ERK-mediated enhancement of HIF-1α activity
    Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are promising tools for the cellular therapy of human pathologies related to various forms of hypoxia. Although the current concepts of their clinical use include the expansion of hBMSC in standard cell culture conditions, the effect of the mitogen-driven ex vivo expansion on the adaptation to the hypoxic environment is unknown. Here, we provide data that the basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) enhances the induction of a wide range of hypoxia-related adaptive genes in hypoxic hBMSCs. We identified that the FGF2 signal is transmitted by the ERK pathway similar to that of hypoxia that also utilises the distal elements of the same signalling machinery including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MEK1/2) in hBMSCs. We found that the simultaneous activation of ERK1/2 by FGF2 and hypoxia transforms the activation dynamics from oscillatory into sustained one. Activated ERKs co-localise with stabilised hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) followed by the reduction of its nuclear mobility as well as increased DNA binding capacity leading to the up-regulation of hypoxia-adaptive genes. Our findings indicate that the status of the ERK pathway has significant impacts on the molecular adaptation of hBMSCs to the hypoxic milieu.
      201Scopus© Citations 15