Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Direct observation by time-resolved infrared spectroscopy of the bright and the dark excited states of the [Ru(phen)2(dppz)]2+ light-switch compound in solution and when bound to DNA
    The [Ru(phen)2(dppz)]2+ complex (1) is non-emissive in water but is highly luminescent in organic solvents or when bound to DNA, making it a useful probe for DNA binding. To date, a complete mechanistic explanation for this “light-switch” effect is still lacking. With this in mind we have undertaken an ultrafast time resolved infrared (TRIR) study of 1 and directly observe marker bands between 1280–1450 cm−1, which characterise both the emissive “bright” and the non-emissive “dark” excited states of the complex, in CD3CN and D2O respectively. These characteristic spectral features are present in the [Ru(dppz)3]2+ solvent light-switch complex but absent in [Ru(phen)3]2+, which is luminescent in both solvents. DFT calculations show that the vibrational modes responsible for these characteristic bands are predominantly localised on the dppz ligand. Moreover, they reveal that certain vibrational modes of the “dark” excited state couple with vibrational modes of two coordinating water molecules, and through these to the bulk solvent, thus providing a new insight into the mechanism of the light-switch effect. We also demonstrate that the marker bands for the “bright” state are observed for both Λ- and Δ-enantiomers of 1 when bound to DNA and that photo-excitation of the complex induces perturbation of the guanine and cytosine carbonyl bands. This perturbation is shown to be stronger for the Λ-enantiomer, demonstrating the different binding site properties of the two enantiomers and the ability of this technique to determine the identity and nature of the binding site of such intercalators.
      201Scopus© Citations 51
  • Publication
    Reversal of a Single Base-Pair Step Controls Guanine Photo-Oxidation by an Intercalating Ruthenium(II) Dipyridophenazine Complex
    Small changes in DNA sequence can often have major biological effects. Here the rates and yields of guanine photo-oxidation by Λ-[Ru(TAP)2(dppz)]2+ have been compared in 5′-{CCGGATCCGG}2 and 5′-{CCGGTACCGG}2 using pico/nanosecond transient visible and time-resolved IR (TRIR) spectroscopy. The inefficiency of electron transfer in the TA sequence is consistent with the 5′-TA-3′ versus 5′-AT-3′ binding preference predicted by X-ray crystallography. The TRIR spectra also reveal the differences in binding sites in the two oligonucleotides.
      266Scopus© Citations 30
  • Publication
    Enantiomeric conformation controls rate and yield of photoinduced electron transfer in DNA sensitized by Ru(II) dipyridophenazine complexes
    Photosensitized oxidation of guanine is an important route to DNA damage. Ruthenium polypyridyls are very useful photosensitizers, as their reactivity and DNA-binding properties are readily tunable. Here we show a strong difference in the reactivity of the two enantiomers of [Ru(TAP)2(dppz)]2+, by using time-resolved visible and IR spectroscopy. This reveals that the photosensitized one-electron oxidation of guanine in three oligonucleotide sequences proceeds with similar rates and yields for bound Δ-[Ru(TAP)2(dppz)]2+, whereas those for the λ enantiomer are very sensitive to base sequence. It is proposed that these differences are due to preferences of each enantiomer for different binding sites in the duplex.
      175Scopus© Citations 27
  • Publication
    Monitoring one-electron photo-oxidation of guanine in DNA crystals using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy
    To understand the molecular origins of diseases caused by ultraviolet and visible light, and also to develop photodynamic therapy, it is important to resolve the mechanism of photoinduced DNA damage. Damage to DNA bound to a photosensitizer molecule frequently proceeds by one-electron photo-oxidation of guanine, but the precise dynamics of this process are sensitive to the location and the orientation of the photosensitizer, which are very difficult to define in solution. To overcome this, ultrafast time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy was performed on photoexcited ruthenium polypyridyl-DNA crystals, the atomic structure of which was determined by X-ray crystallography. By combining the X-ray and TRIR data we are able to define both the geometry of the reaction site and the rates of individual steps in a reversible photoinduced electron-transfer process. This allows us to propose an individual guanine as the reaction site and, intriguingly, reveals that the dynamics in the crystal state are quite similar to those observed in the solvent medium.
      243Scopus© Citations 62
  • Publication
    Monitoring guanine photo-oxidation by enantiomerically resolved Ru(II) dipyridophenazine complexes using inosine-substituted oligonucleotides
    The intercalating [Ru(TAP)2(dppz)]2+ complex can photo-oxidise guanine in DNA, although in mixed-sequence DNA it can be difficult to understand the precise mechanism due to uncertainties in where and how the complex is bound. Replacement of guanine with the less oxidisable inosine (I) base can be used to understand the mechanism of electron transfer (ET). Here the ET has been compared for both Λ- and Δ-enantiomers of [Ru(TAP)2(dppz)]2+ in a set of sequences where guanines in the readily oxidisable GG step in {TCGGCGCCGA}2 have been replaced with I. The ET has been monitored using picosecond and nanosecond transient absorption and picosecond time-resolved IR spectroscopy. In both cases inosine replacement leads to a diminished yield, but the trends are strikingly different for Λ- and Δ-complexes.
      194Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    Inosine Can Increase DNA′s Susceptibility to Photo‐oxidation by a RuII Complex due to Structural Change in the Minor Groove
    Weinheim Key to the development of DNA-targeting phototherapeutic drugs is determining the interplay between the photoactivity of the drug and its binding preference for a target sequence. For the photo-oxidising lambda-[Ru(TAP)2(dppz)]2+ (Λ-1) (dppz=dipyridophenazine) complex bound to either d{T1C2G3G4C5G6C7C8G9A10}2 (G9) or d{TCGGCGCCIA}2 (I9), the X-ray crystal structures show the dppz intercalated at the terminal T1C2;G9A10 step or T1C2;I9A10 step. Thus substitution of the G9 nucleobase by inosine does not affect intercalation in the solid state although with I9 the dppz is more deeply inserted. In solution it is found that the extent of guanine photo-oxidation, and the rate of back electron-transfer, as determined by pico- and nanosecond time-resolved infrared and transient visible absorption spectroscopy, is enhanced in I9, despite it containing the less oxidisable inosine. This is attributed to the nature of the binding in the minor groove due to the absence of an NH2 group. Similar behaviour and the same binding site in the crystal are found for d{TTGGCGCCAA}2 (A9). In solution, we propose that intercalation occurs at the C2G3;C8I9 or T2G3;C8A9 steps, respectively, with G3 the likely target for photo-oxidation. This demonstrates how changes in the minor groove (in this case removal of an NH2 group) can facilitate binding of RuIIdppz complexes and hence influence any sensitised reactions occurring at these sites. No similar enhancement of photooxidation on binding to I9 is found for the delta enantiomer.
      155Scopus© Citations 18