Now showing 1 - 10 of 18
  • Publication
    REST mediates resolution of HIF-dependent gene expression in prolonged hypoxia
    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a key regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia which promotes oxygen delivery and metabolic adaptation to oxygen deprivation. However, the degree and duration of HIF-1a expression in hypoxia must be carefully balanced within cells in order to avoid unwanted side effects associated with excessive activity. The expression of HIF-1a mRNA is suppressed in prolonged hypoxia, suggesting that the control of HIF1A gene transcription is tightly regulated by negative feedback mechanisms. Little is known about the resolution of the HIF-1a protein response and the suppression of HIF-1a mRNA in prolonged hypoxia. Here, we demonstrate that the Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription factor (REST) binds to the HIF-1a promoter in a hypoxia-dependent manner. Knockdown of REST using RNAi increases the expression of HIF-1a mRNA, protein and transcriptional activity. Furthermore REST knockdown increases glucose consumption and lactate production in a HIF-1a- (but not HIF-2a-) dependent manner. Finally, REST promotes the resolution of HIF-1a protein expression in prolonged hypoxia. In conclusion, we hypothesize that REST represses transcription of HIF-1a in prolonged hypoxia, thus contributing to the resolution of the HIF-1a response.
      288Scopus© Citations 54
  • Publication
    Understanding complexity in the HIF signaling pathway using systems biology and mathematical modeling
    Hypoxia is a common micro-environmental stress which is experienced by cells during a range of physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. The identification of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) as the master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia transformed our understanding of the mechanism underpinning the hypoxic response at the molecular level and identified HIF as a potentially important new therapeutic target. It has recently become clear that multiple levels of regulatory control exert influence on the HIF pathway giving the response a complex and dynamic activity profile. These include positive and negative feedback loops within the HIF pathway as well as multiple levels of crosstalk with other signaling pathways. The emerging model reflects a multi-level regulatory network that affects multiple aspects of the physiologic response to hypoxia including proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Understanding the interplay between the molecular mechanisms involved in the dynamic regulation of the HIF pathway at a systems level is critically important in defining new appropriate therapeutic targets for human diseases including ischemia, cancer, and chronic inflammation. Here, we review our current knowledge of the regulatory circuits which exert influence over the HIF response and give examples of in silico model-based predictions of the dynamic behaviour of this system.
      457Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    FIH Regulates Cellular Metabolism through Hydroxylation of the Deubiquitinase OTUB1
    The asparagine hydroxylase, factor inhibiting HIF (FIH), confers oxygen-dependence upon the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a master regulator of the cellular adaptive response to hypoxia. Studies investigating whether asparagine hydroxylation is a general regulatory oxygen-dependent modification have identified multiple non-HIF targets for FIH. However, the functional consequences of this outside of the HIF pathway remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the deubiquitinase ovarian tumor domain containing ubiquitin aldehyde binding protein 1 (OTUB1) is a substrate for hydroxylation by FIH on N22. Mutation of N22 leads to a profound change in the interaction of OTUB1 with proteins important in cellular metabolism. Furthermore, in cultured cells, overexpression of N22A mutant OTUB1 impairs cellular metabolic processes when compared to wild type. Based on these data, we hypothesize that OTUB1 is a target for functional hydroxylation by FIH. Additionally, we propose that our results provide new insight into the regulation of cellular energy metabolism during hypoxic stress and the potential for targeting hydroxylases for therapeutic benefit.
      303Scopus© Citations 75
  • Publication
    Monitoring of cell oxygenation and responses to metabolic stimulation by intracellular oxygen sensing technique
    Quenched-phosphorescence oxygen (O2) sensing technique allows non-invasive, real-time monitoring of both intra- and extracellular O2 concentration in respiring samples. Using this technique we investigated O2 gradients in populations of neurosecretory PC12 cells cultured in 96-well plates and exposed to graded hypoxia at rest and upon metabolic stimulation. Under high atmospheric O2 (10–21%) the respiration of resting cells dictated that local O2 was moderately reduced, and at a certain threshold (6% in galactose medium) cell layer became practically anoxic. Furthermore, cell stimulation triggered a major redistribution of O2 and a prominent ‘hypoxic overshoot’ mediated by diffusion. The deep, prolonged cell deoxygenation upon stimulation was matched by an increase in nuclear HIF-1α levels. In the presence of nitric oxide the hypoxic overshoot was truncated and HIF-1α stabilization inhibited. Thus, the main determinants which impact upon cellular O2 levels and oxygen-sensitive signaling pathways are the atmospheric O2, sample geometry, cell density, respiration rate and its dynamics. Changes in any of these parameters can significantly alter the O2 levels experienced by the cells and the subsequently activated signaling pathways. This technique, which provides simple and reliable monitoring of cell oxygenation, is therefore important for hypoxia research, metabolic studies and experiments with respiring cells.
      696Scopus© Citations 55
  • Publication
    Hypoxia-dependent regulation of inflammatory pathways in immune cells
    (American Society for Clinical Investigation, 2016-07-25) ; ; ;
    Uncontrolled inflammation underpins a diverse range of diseases where effective therapy remains an unmet clinical need. Hypoxia is a prominent feature of the inflammatory microenvironment that regulates key transcription factors including HIF and NF-κB in both innate and adaptive immune cells. In turn, altered activity of the pathways controlled by these factors can affect the course of inflammation through the regulation of immune cell development and function. In this review, we will discuss these pathways and the oxygen sensors that confer hypoxic sensitivity in immune cells. Furthermore, we will describe how hypoxia-dependent pathways contribute to immunity and discuss their potential as therapeutic targets in inflammatory and infectious disease.
      460Scopus© Citations 148
  • Publication
    Basic fibroblast growth factor modifies the hypoxic response of human bone marrow stromal cells by ERK-mediated enhancement of HIF-1α activity
    Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) are promising tools for the cellular therapy of human pathologies related to various forms of hypoxia. Although the current concepts of their clinical use include the expansion of hBMSC in standard cell culture conditions, the effect of the mitogen-driven ex vivo expansion on the adaptation to the hypoxic environment is unknown. Here, we provide data that the basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) enhances the induction of a wide range of hypoxia-related adaptive genes in hypoxic hBMSCs. We identified that the FGF2 signal is transmitted by the ERK pathway similar to that of hypoxia that also utilises the distal elements of the same signalling machinery including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MEK1/2) in hBMSCs. We found that the simultaneous activation of ERK1/2 by FGF2 and hypoxia transforms the activation dynamics from oscillatory into sustained one. Activated ERKs co-localise with stabilised hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) followed by the reduction of its nuclear mobility as well as increased DNA binding capacity leading to the up-regulation of hypoxia-adaptive genes. Our findings indicate that the status of the ERK pathway has significant impacts on the molecular adaptation of hBMSCs to the hypoxic milieu.
      270Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    The role of HIF in immunity and inflammation
    Uncontrolled or non-resolving inflammation underpins a range of disease states including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and atherosclerosis. Hypoxia is a prominent feature of chronically inflamed tissues. This is due to elevated oxygen consumption by highly metabolically active inflamed resident cells and activated infiltrating immunocytes, as well as diminished oxygen supply due to vascular dysfunction. Tissue hypoxia can have a significant impact upon inflammatory signaling pathways in immune and non-immune cells and this can impact upon disease progression. In this review, we will discuss the relationship between tissue hypoxia and inflammation and identify how hypoxia-sensitive signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets in chronic inflammatory disease.
      1322Scopus© Citations 122
  • Publication
    Hypercapnia Suppresses the HIF-dependent Adaptive Response to Hypoxia
    Molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide are the primary gaseous substrate and product of oxidative metabolism, respectively. Hypoxia (low oxygen) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide) are co-incidental features of the tissue microenvironment in a range of pathophysiologic states, including acute and chronic respiratory diseases. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia; however, little is known about the impact of hypercapnia on gene transcription. Because of the relationship between hypoxia and hypercapnia, we investigated the effect of hypercapnia on the HIF pathway. Hypercapnia suppressed HIF-α protein stability and HIF target gene expression both in mice and cultured cells in a manner that was at least in part independent of the canonical O2-dependent HIF degradation pathway. The suppressive effects of hypercapnia on HIF-α protein stability could be mimicked by reducing intracellular pH at a constant level of partial pressure of CO2 Bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase that blocks lysosomal degradation, prevented the hypercapnic suppression of HIF-α protein. Based on these results, we hypothesize that hypercapnia counter-regulates activation of the HIF pathway by reducing intracellular pH and promoting lysosomal degradation of HIF-α subunits. Therefore, hypercapnia may play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases where HIF is implicated.
      97Scopus© Citations 48
  • Publication
    Hypoxia: an alarm signal during intestinal inflammation
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2010-04-06) ;
    Intestinal epithelial cells that line the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract are positioned between an anaerobic lumen and a highly metabolic lamina propria. As a result of this unique anatomy, intestinal epithelial cells function within a steep physiologic oxygen gradient relative to other cell types. Furthermore, during active inflammatory disease such as IBD, metabolic shifts towards hypoxia are severe. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) serves as an alarm signal to promote the resolution of inflammation in various mouse models of disease. Amelioration of disease occurs, at least in part, through transcriptional upregulation of nonclassic epithelial barrier genes. There is much interest in harnessing hypoxia-inducible pathways, including stabilizing HIF directly or via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase enzymes, for therapy of IBD. In this Review, we discuss the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of hypoxia and discuss how hypoxia may serve as an endogenous alarm signal for the presence of mucosal inflammatory disease. We also discuss the pros and cons of targeting these pathways to treat patients with IBD.
      473Scopus© Citations 363
  • Publication
    Regulation of IL-1β-induced NF-κB by hydroxylases links key hypoxic and inflammatory signaling pathways
    Hypoxia is a prominent feature of chronically inflamed tissues. Oxygen-sensing hydroxylases control transcriptional adaptation to hypoxia through the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), both of which can regulate the inflammatory response. Furthermore, pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibitors reduce inflammation in multiple animal models. However, the underlying mechanism(s) linking hydroxylase activity to inflammatory signaling remains unclear. IL-1β, a major proinflammatory cytokine that regulates NF-κB, is associated with multiple inflammatory pathologies. We demonstrate that a combination of prolyl hydroxylase 1 and factor inhibiting HIF hydroxylase isoforms regulates IL-1β-induced NF-κB at the level of (or downstream of) the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 complex. Multiple proteins of the distal IL-1β-signaling pathway are subject to hydroxylation and form complexes with either prolyl hydroxylase 1 or factor inhibiting HIF. Thus, we hypothesize that hydroxylases regulate IL-1β signaling and subsequent inflammatory gene expression. Furthermore, hydroxylase inhibition represents a unique approach to the inhibition of IL-1β-dependent inflammatory signaling.
      277Scopus© Citations 146