Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Scaling of laser produced plasma UTA emission down to 3 nm for next generation lithography and short wavelength imaging
    An engineering prototype high average power 13.5-nm source has been shipped to semiconductor facilities to permit the commencement of high volume production at a 100 W power level in 2011. In this source, UTA (unresolved transition array) emission of highly ionized Sn is optimized for high conversion efficiency and full recovery of the injected fuel is realized through ion deflection in a magnetic field. By use of a low-density target, satellite emission is suppressed and full ionization attained with short pulse CO2 laser irradiation. The UTA is scalable to shorter wavelengths, and Gd is shown to have similar conversion efficiency to Sn (13.5 nm) at a higher plasma temperature, with a narrow spectrum centered at 6.7 nm, where a 70% reflectivity mirror is anticipated. Optimization of short pulse CO2 laser irradiation is studied, and further extension of the same method is discussed, to realize 100 W average power down to a wavelength of 3 nm
      604Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    Extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of Gd and Tb ions
    (American Institute of Physics, 2010) ;
    Theoretical extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of gadolinium and terbium ions calculated with the Cowan suite of codes and the flexible atomic code (FAC) relativistic code are presented. 4d–4f and 4p–4d transitions give rise to unresolved transition arrays in a range of ions. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated for transitions between singly excited configurations. Optimization of emission at 6.775 nm and 6.515 nm is achieved for Gd and Tb ions, respectively, by consideration of plasma effects. The resulting synthetic spectra are compared with experimental spectra recorded using the laser produced plasma technique.
      583Scopus© Citations 45
  • Publication
    Systematic investigation of self-absorption property and conversion efficiency of 6.7-nm extreme ultraviolet sources
    We have demonstrated rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.7 nm to investigate the spectral behavior and the conversion efficiencies to different laser wavelength and the initial target densities. The conversion efficiency was maximized to be 0.9% at laser intensity of 7 × 1012 W/cm2 at its wavelength of 1064 nm, which is attributed to the minimum self-absorption effect by use of the low initial density target, together with the narrow spectrum. It is important to use a low initial density target and to produce low electron density plasmas for efficient EUV sources using the high-Z targets.
      410Scopus© Citations 51
  • Publication
    Ground-State Configurations and Unresolved Transition Arrays in Extreme Ultraviolet Spectra of Lanthanide Ions
    (American Physical Society, 2010) ;
    Theoretical ground-state configurations of lanthanide ions calculated with the Cowan suite of codes are presented. Theoretical 4d - 4f and 4p - 4d spectra of Pd-like to Rb-like lanthanide ions calculated using the FAC relativistic code are also shown. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated and results compare favorably with experiments where, for increasing nuclear charge, strong emission peaks are observed to move towards shorter wavelength. The application of these strong emitters as extreme ultraviolet radiation sources, a topic of emerging interest, is discussed.
      726Scopus© Citations 28
  • Publication
    Transition wavelengths and unresolved transition array statistics of ions with Z = 72 − 89
    (Institute of Physics, 2011-08-28)
    Potential extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation sources have been identified, using the flexible atomic code (FAC), as emission peaks arising from the 4d–4f and 4p–4d transitions in Pd-like to Rb-like ions of hafnium through actinium. The effects of configuration interaction are investigated and for increasing nuclear charge, these strong emitters are seen to separate and move to shorter wavelengths. Each source is characterized using the unresolved transition array model. They are proposed to complement the currently used nitrogen and argon sources in the 'water window', and as possible successors to tin in next-generation lithography.
      283Scopus© Citations 32
  • Publication
    Interpretation of spectral emission around 20 nm region from tungsten ions observed in fusion device plasmas
    We have measured extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from tungsten ions around 20 nm region in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. The spectra after injecting a tungsten pellet into a hydrogen plasma were monitored by a grazing incidence spectrometer. Quasicontinuum spectral feature arising from unresolved transition array (UTA) was observed around 20 nm region in plasmas with temperatures below 1.0 keV. This structure is reasonably considered to be the same one as those observed in another tokamak device or laser produced plasmas under low temperature conditions. Atomic structure calculations have been performed for tungsten ions with open 5p, 5s and 4f subshells (W7+–W27+) to interpret this commonly observed feature around 20 nm. Wavelengths and gA values for these transitions were calculated, and their mean wavelengths and extent were compared with the observations, which suggests that the emission largely arises from n = 5–5 transitions in stages lower than W27+.
      230Scopus© Citations 26