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    FTIR and Raman imaging for microplastics analysis: State of the art, challenges and prospects
    Despite a substantial body of research to date for the detection of microplastics (MPs) in almost every environmental compartment there remains a lack of standardisation, and methodologies used by different research groups vary widely. Chemical imaging, which provides simultaneous measurement of physical (i.e. spatial) and chemical (i.e. spectroscopic) information, is recognized as a promising tool for MPs analysis. Herein, we first review the state-of-the-art chemical imaging methods, i.e., Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman imaging, for the identification and quantification of MPs from different environmental samples. From a technical point of view (e.g., accuracy, speed optimizations and background effects), the limitations and analytical challenges are highlighted from extensive literature data. Finally, we suggest possible strategies and solutions to improve current practices towards an automated routine for MPs analysis.
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