Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    Identifying damage in a bridge by analysing rotation response to a moving load
    This article proposes a bridge damage detection method using direct rotation measurements. Initially, numerical analyses are carried out on a one-dimensional (1D) simply supported beam model loaded with a single moving point load to investigate the sensitivity of rotation as a main parameter for damage identification. As a result of this study, the difference in rotation measurements due to a single moving point load obtained for healthy and damaged states is proposed as a damage indicator. A relatively simple laboratory experiment is conducted on a 3-m long simply supported beam structure to validate the results obtained from the numerical analysis. The case of multi-axle vehicles is investigated through numerical analyses of a 1D bridge model and a theoretical basis for damage detection is presented. Finally, a sophisticated 3D dynamic finite element model of a 20-m long simply supported bridge structure is developed by an independent team of researchers and used to test the robustness of the proposed damage detection methodology in a series of blind tests. Rotations from an extensive range of damage scenarios were provided to the main team who applied their methods without prior knowledge of the extent or location of the damage. Results from the blind test simulations demonstrate that the proposed methodology provides a reasonable indication of the bridge condition for all test scenarios.
      243Scopus© Citations 19
  • Publication
    An investigation of the changes in the natural frequency of a pile affected by scour
    Scour around bridge foundations is one of the leading causes of bridge failure. Up until recently, the monitoring of this phenomenon was primarily based around using underwater instrumentation to monitor the progression of scour holes as they develop around foundation systems. Vibration¿based damage detection techniques have been used to detect damage in bridge beams. The application of these vibration based methods to the detection of scour has come to the fore in research in recent years. This paper examines the effect that scour has on the frequency response of a driven pile foundation system, similar to those used to support road and rail bridges. The effect of scour on the vibration characteristics of the pile is examined using laboratory and field testing. It is clear that there is a very clear reduction in the natural frequency of the pile as the severity of scour increases. It is shown that by combining state-of-the-art geotechnical techniques with relatively simple finite element modelling approaches, it is possible to accurately predict the natural frequency of the pile for a given scour depth. Therefore, the paper proposes a method that would allow the estimation of scour depth for a given observed pile frequency.
      457Scopus© Citations 111
  • Publication
    A wavelet-based damage detection algorithm based on bridge acceleration response to a vehicle
    (Elsevier, 2012-04) ;
    Previous research based on theoretical simulations has shown the potential of the wavelet transform to detect damage in a beam by analysing the time-deflection response due to a constant moving load. However, its application to identify damage from the response of a bridge to a vehicle raises a number of questions. Firstly, it may be difficult to record the difference in the deflection signal between a healthy and a slightly damaged structure to the required level of accuracy and high scanning frequencies in the field. Secondly, the bridge is going to have a road profile and it will be loaded by a sprung vehicle and time-varying forces rather than a constant load. Therefore, an algorithm based on a plot of wavelet coefficients versus time to detect damage (a singularity in the plot) appears to be very sensitive to noise. This paper addresses these questions by: (a) using the acceleration signal, instead of the deflection signal, (b) employing a vehicle-bridge finite element interaction model, and (c) developing a novel wavelet-based approach using wavelet energy content at each bridge section, which proves to be more sensitive to damage than a wavelet coefficient line plot at a given scale as employed by others.    
      1607Scopus© Citations 164
  • Publication
    A study of the influence of slag alkali level on the alkali-silica reactivity of slag concrete
    Ground granulated blast furnace slag (ggbs), can reduce the alkali load in concrete, despite its relatively high alkali content. Most research has been devoted to the efficacy of slag with an alkali content of less than 1.0% and this is reflected in guidance documents. A comparative assessment was made of the effect, if any, of the alkali level of ggbs on potential alkali-silica reactivity. Expansion tests were performed on a matrix of concrete mixes using Irish normal Portland cement, two slags of differing alkali content, three aggregates and alkali loads of 5 and 6 kg Na2Oeq./m(3). A replacement level of 50% was used throughout. No significant difference in behaviour was apparent, irrespective of aggregate type or alkali load, indicating that the alkali level of the slag is not a contributory factor at the 50% replacement level.
      1045Scopus© Citations 38
  • Publication
    Empirical mode decomposition of the acceleration response of a prismatic beam subject to a moving load to Identify multiple damage locations
    Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a technique that converts the measured signal into a number of basic functions known as intrinsic mode functions. The EMD-based damage detection algorithm relies on the principle that a sudden loss of stiffness in a structural member will cause a discontinuity in the measured response that can be detected through a distinctive spike in the filtered intrinsic mode function. Recent studies have shown that applying EMD to the acceleration response, due to the crossing of a constant load over a beam finite element model, can be used to detect a single damaged location. In this paper, the technique is further tested using the response of a discretized finite element beam with multiple damaged sections modeled as localized losses of stiffness. The ability of the algorithm to detect more than one damaged section is analysed for a variety of scenarios including a range of bridge lengths, speeds of the moving load and noise levels. The use of a moving average filter on the acceleration response, prior to applying EMD, is shown to improve the sensitivity to damage. The influence of the number of measurement points and their distance to the damaged sections on the accuracy of the predicted damage is also discussed.
      253Scopus© Citations 38
  • Publication
    A discussion on the merits and limitations of using drive-by monitoring to detect localised damage in a bridge
    (Elsevier, 2017-06) ;
    Given the large number of bridges that currently have no instrumentation, there are obvious advantages in monitoring the condition of a bridge by analysing the response of a vehicle crossing it. As a result, the last two decades have seen a rise in the research attempting to solve the problem of identifying damage in a bridge from vehicle measurements. This paper examines the theoretical feasibility and practical limitations of a drive-by system in identifying damage associated to localized stiffness losses. First, the nature of the damage feature that is sought within the vehicle response needs to be characterized. For this purpose, the total vehicle response is considered to be made of ¿static¿ and ¿dynamic¿ components, and where the bridge has experienced a localized loss in stiffness, an additional ¿damage¿ component. Understanding the nature of this ¿damage¿ component is crucial to have an informed discussion on how damage can be identified and localised. Leveraging this new understanding, the authors propose a wavelet-based drive-by algorithm. By comparing the effect of the ¿damage¿ component to other key effects defining the measurements such as ¿vehicle speed¿, the ¿road profile¿ and ¿noise¿ on a wavelet contour plot, it is possible to establish if there is a frequency range where drive-by can be successful. The algorithm uses then specific frequency bands to improve the sensitivity to damage with respect to limitations imposed by Vehicle-Bridge vibrations. Recommendations on the selection of the mother wavelet and frequency band are provided. Finally, the paper discusses the impact of noise and road profile on the ability of the approach to identify damage and how periodic measurements can be effective at monitoring localised stiffness changes. 
      258Scopus© Citations 61
  • Publication
    Impact of Road Profile when Detecting a Localised Damage from Bridge Acceleration Response to a Moving Vehicle
    (Trans Tech Publications, 2013-07) ;
    Previous work by the authors have shown that the acceleration response of a damaged beam subject to a constant moving load can be assumed to be made up of three components: 'dynamic', 'static' and 'damage'. Therefore, appropriate filtering of the acceleration signal can be used to highlight the ‘damage’ component and quantify its severity. This paper builds on these findings to examine if the same approach can be used to identify damage in the more realistic case of a bridge loaded by a sprung vehicle travelling on a road profile. The consideration of a road profile has the effect of exciting the vehicle modes of vibration which will corrupt the spectrum of bridge accelerations with road/vehicle frequencies. Some of these vehicle frequencies may be lower than the first frequency of the bridge and close to the frequency of the 'damage' component. In the latter, the vehicle frequencies are difficult to remove without also filtering part of the 'damage' component out. As a result, the approach is shown to perform best for low vehicle speeds.
      288Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    Empirical mode decomposition of the acceleration response of a prismatic beam subject to a moving load to identify multiple damage locations
    Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is a technique that converts the measured signal into a number of basic functions known as Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The EMD-based damage detection algorithm relies on the principle that a sudden loss of stiffness in a structural member will cause a discontinuity in the measured response that can be detected through a distinctive spike in the filtered IMF. Recent studies have shown that applying EMD to the acceleration response, due to the crossing of a constant load over a beam finite element model, can be used to detect a single damaged location. In this paper, the technique is further tested using simulations of a beam with multiple damaged sections. The use of a moving average filter on the acceleration response, prior to applying EMD, is also investigated. A bridge deck is modelled as a series of discretized beam elements where a loss of stiffness is introduced at some random locations. The ability of the EMD algorithm to detect more than one damaged section is analysed for a variety of scenarios including a range of bridge lengths, speeds of the moving load and noise levels. The influence of the number of measurement points and their distance to the damaged locations on the accuracy of the predicted damage is also discussed.
      222
  • Publication
    Development of a Vehicle-Bridge-Soil Dynamic Interaction Model for Scour Damage Modelling
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2015) ; ;
    Damage detection in bridges using vibration-based methods is an area of growing research interest. Improved assessment methodologies combined with state-of-the-art sensor technology are rapidly making these approaches applicable for real-world structures. Applying these techniques to the detection and monitoring of scour around bridge foundations has remained challenging; however this area has gained attraction in recent years. Several authors have investigated a range of methods but there is still significant work required to achieve a rounded and widely applicable methodology to detect and monitor scour. This paper presents a novel Vehicle-Bridge-Soil Dynamic Interaction (VBSDI) model which can be used to simulate the effect of scour on an integral bridge. The model outputs dynamic signals which can be analysed to determine modal parameters and the variation of these parameters with respect to scour can be examined. The key novelty of this model is that it is the first numerical model for simulating scour that combines a realistic vehicle loading model with a robust foundation soil response model.This paper provides a description of the model development and explains the mathematical theory underlying the model. Finally a case study application of the model using typical bridge, soil, and vehicle properties is provided.
      289Scopus© Citations 27
  • Publication
    A bridge monitoring tool based on bridge and vehicle accelerations
    (Taylor and Francis, 2014-04-01) ;
    Previous research on damage detection based on the response of a structure to a moving load has reported decay in accuracy with increasing load speed. Using a 3D vehicle–bridge interaction model, this paper shows that the area under the filtered acceleration response of the bridge increases with increasing damage, even at highway load speeds. Once a datum reading is established, the area under subsequent readings can be monitored and compared with the baseline reading, if an increase is observed it may indicate the presence of damage. The sensitivity of the proposed approach to road roughness and noise is tested in several damage scenarios. The possibility of identifying damage in the bridge by analysing the acceleration response of the vehicle traversing it is also investigated. While vehicle acceleration is shown to be more sensitive to road roughness and noise and therefore less reliable than direct bridge measurements, damage is successfully identified in favourable scenarios.
      496Scopus© Citations 21