Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    What are the mechanisms that enable the reciprocal involvement of seldom heard groups in health and social care research? A rapid realist review protocol
    Background: The University College Dublin (UCD) PPI Ignite Connect Network will fundamentally embed public and patient involvement (PPI) in health-related research, education and training, professional practice and administration in UCD’s institutional structures and procedures. A significant focus of the programme of work is on actively engaging and developing long-term reciprocal relationships with seldom heard groups, via our ten inaugural partners. Methods: This rapid realist review will explore what are the mechanisms that are important in actively engaging seldom heard groups in health and social care research. The review process will follow five iterative steps: (1) clarify scope, (2) search for evidence, (3) appraise primary studies and extract data, (4) synthesise evidence and draw conclusions, and (5) disseminate findings. The reviewers will consult with expert and reference panels to focus the review, provide local contextual insights and develop a programme theory consisting of context–mechanism–outcome configurations. The expert panel will oversee the review process and agree, via consensus, the final programme theory. Review findings will follow the adopted RAMESES guideline and will be disseminated via a report, presentations and peer-reviewed publication. Discussion: The review will update and consolidate evidence on the mechanisms that enable the reciprocal engagement and participation of ‘seldom heard’ groups in health and social care research. Via the expert and reference process, we will draw from a sizeable body of published and unpublished research and grey literature. The local contextual insights provided will aid the development of our programme theories. This new evidence will inform the design and development of the UCD PPI Ignite program focused on ensuring sustained reciprocal partnerships.
  • Publication
    Changes in pain following a 6-week weight management in-patient programme
    Objectives Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is a commonly reported obesity related co-morbidity. Our Weight Management Service (WMS) is a national Tier 3 referral centre for the treatment of adults with severe obesity. As part of our service we deliver a 6 week weight management in-patient programme (WMIPP). This WMIPP involves a 1,100kcal liquid diet, functional rehabilitation and psychology interventions. This study evaluates the impact of the WMIPP on MSK pain and physical function.
  • Publication
    Does changing weight change pain? Retrospective data analysis from a national multidisciplinary weight management service
    Background: Musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is common in obese populations. Multidisciplinary Tier 3 weight management services (WMS) are effective in reducing weight; however, MSK pain as an outcome is not routinely reported post-WMS interventions. Methods: Following ethical approval this retrospective design study using anonymized data from a national WMS established changes in anthropometric and pain prevalence and intensity scores as well as establishing variables predictive of achieving clinically significant changes (CSC) in pain scores. Results: Of the 806 patients registered to the WMS (January 2011–February 2015), 59% (n = 476; CI = 56–62) attended their reassessments at 6 months. The overall mean age was 45.1 ± 12 years and 62% (n = 294) were female. At baseline 70% (n = 281; CI = 65–75) reported low back pain (LBP) and 59% (n = 234; CI = 54–64) had knee pain. At reassessment 37.3% (n = 177) of patients lost ≥5% body weight, 58.7% (n = 279) were weight stable (5% weight loss or gain) and 4.0% (n = 19) gained ≥5% body weight. Low back and knee pain prevalence reduced significantly for those who lost ≥5% body weight. Variables predictive of a CSC in LBP numerical rating scale (NRS) score included a higher baseline NRS score, weighing more, and rating losing weight as being important (p < 0.05). Higher baseline NRS and being younger resulted in higher odds of a CSC in knee pain NRS (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Overall this WMS was effective for clinical weight loss. For those who lost most weight prevalence of knee and LBP reduced. Imbedding pain management strategies within WMS’s may provide a more holistic approach to obesity management. Significance: Weight loss can reduce musculoskeletal pain, particularly for those who lose more weight. Imbedding pain management strategies within these services may provide a more holistic approach to obesity management.
      158Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    The impact on sleep of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural pain management programme: a pilot study
    Background: Reduced sleep quality is a common complaint among patients with chronic pain, with 50-80% of patients reporting sleep disturbance. Improvements in pain and quality of life measures have been achieved using a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme (CBT-PMP) that aims to recondition attitudes to pain, and improve patients' self-management of their condition. Despite its high prevalence in patients with chronic pain, there is very limited objective evidence for the effect of this intervention on sleep quality. The primary research objective is to investigate the short-term effect of a multidisciplinary CBTPMP on subjective (measured by Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep quality (measured by Actigraphy) in patients with chronic pain by comparison with a control group. The secondary objectives will investigate changes in function and mood, and then explore the relationship between objective and subjective sleep quality and physical and psychological outcome measures. Methods/Design: Patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria for attendance on the multidisciplinary CBT-PMP in the Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin and are currently listed on the PMP waiting list will be invited to participate in this pilot study. Potential patients will be screened for sleep disturbance [determined by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Those patients with a sleep disturbance (PSQI >5) will be assigned to either the intervention group (immediate treatment), or control group (deferred treatment, i.e. the PMP they are listed for is more than six months away) based on where they appear on the waiting list. Baseline measures of sleep, function, and mood will be obtained using a combination of self-report questionnaires (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form 36 health survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia), and functional outcome measures. Sleep will be measured for seven days using actigraphy (Actiwatch 7). These measures will be repeated after the four week multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme, and at a two month follow-up. The waiting list control group will be assessed at baseline, and two months later. Analysis for the primary outcome will include between group differences of subjective and objective sleep parameters from baseline to follow-up using Independent T-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. The secondary outcomes establishing relationships between the sleep variables and physical and psychological outcome measures will be established using multiple linear regression models. Discussion: This pilot study will evaluate the impact of a multidisciplinary CBT-PMP on both subjective and objective measures of sleep in patients with chronic pain and provide guidance for a larger clinical trial. Trial Registration: Current controlled trial ISRCTN: ISRCTN74913595
      201Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    Quality of life after spinal cord injury: The impact of pain
    Pain is a common complication after spinal cord injury (SCI). A mixture of nociceptive and neuropathic pain (NP) can present. Limited studies have investigated the impact of different pain phenotypes on quality of life (QoL) post-SCI. Methods: Members registered to a national support group for those with SCIs were surveyed (n = 1574). The survey comprised questions relating to demographics and SCI characteristics, The Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) (interview), the International SCI Pain Basic Data Set recording the worst pain and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF). An ANCOVA model with post hoc analysis explored between group factors of pain type and intensity of pain categories on QoL, controlling for additional confounding variables. Significance was set p < 0.05. A linear regression explored whether pain intensity, type or interference best predicted QoL. Results: The response rate was 41% (n = 643), 70% (n = 447) were male. The mean age of respondents was 52 years (SD 14.2) and mean time from SCI was 17 years (SD 12.4). In the previous week, 71% (n = 458) experienced pain, 37% (n = 236) of which had NP as defined in the study. Respondents experiencing NP demonstrated significantly poorer QoL than those without pain (p < 0.001) or nociceptive pain (p < 0.05). Those reporting high pain intensity had significantly lower QoL than those with moderate or no pain (p < 0.001). Pain interference consistently and best-predicted domains of QoL (p < 0.001). Conclusion: High-intensity pain and NP negatively impacts QoL post-SCI. However pain interference more than intensity or type best explains the variance in QoL reported. Significance: Neuropathic pain type and severe pain intensities negatively impact QoL after SCI. Pain interference items better predict reported QoL than either pain type or intensity, suggesting better pain management strategies are warranted.
      587Scopus© Citations 35
  • Publication
    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled and controlled clinical trials Methods: Studies were identified from databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Sports Discus, PEDro and the Cochrane Library) searched to January 2011 using a battery of keywords. Two reviewers selected studies meeting inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Thomas Test and the strength of the evidence was then graded using the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines. Data were pooled and meta-analyses were performed. Results: Nine randomized controlled trials and one controlled clinical trial, studying a total of 409 participants (n = 395 for randomized controlled trials, and n = 14 for controlled trial) with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis were included. Inconsistent evidence (level D) was found that neuromuscular electrical stimulation has a significant impact on measures of pain, function and quadriceps femoris muscle strength in knee osteoarthritis. Conclusion: The role of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis is ambiguous. Therefore, future work is needed in this field to clearly establish the role of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in this population.
      837Scopus© Citations 37
  • Publication
    Musculoskeletal pain profile of obese individuals attending a multidisciplinary weight management service
    Obesity is associated with numerous chronic diseases, including musculoskeletal (MSK) pain, which affects on quality of life (QoL). There is, however, limited research providing a comprehensive MSK pain profile of an obese cohort. This retrospective study used a patient database at a national weight management service. After ethical approval, anonymized patient data were statistically analyzed to develop a pain profile, investigate relationships between pain, sleep, and function, and explore variables associated with having low back pain (LBP) and knee pain. Overall, 915 individuals attended the weight management service from January 2011 to September 2015 [male, 35% (n = 318; confidence interval [CI] = 32-38); female, 65% (n = 597; CI = 62-68); mean age 44.6]. Mean body mass index was 50.7 kg/m 2 [class III obese (body mass index ≥40 kg/m 2), 92% (n = 835; CI = 91-94)]. Approximately 91% reported MSK pain: LBP, 69% (n = 539; CI = 65-72) [mean Numeric Rating Scale 7.4]; knee pain, 58% (n = 447; CI = 55-61) [mean Numeric Rating Scale 6.8]. Class III obese and multisite pain patients had lower QoL and physical activity levels, reduced sleep, and poorer physical function than less obese patients and those without pain (P < 0.05). Relationships were found between demographic, pain, self-report, psychological, and functional measures (P < 0.05). Patients who slept fewer hours and had poorer functional outcomes were more likely to have LBP; patients who were divorced, had lower QoL, and more frequent nocturia were more likely to have knee pain (P < 0.05). Multisite MSK pain is prevalent and severe in obese patients and is negatively associated with most self-report and functional outcomes. This high prevalence suggests that pain management strategies must be considered when treating obesity.
      282Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    Neuropathic pain prevalence following spinal cord injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), chronic pain is a common secondary complication with neuropathic pain (NP) cited as one of the most distressing and debilitating conditions leading to poor quality of life, depression and sleep disturbances. Neuropathic pain presenting at or below the level of injury is largely refractory to current pharmacological and physical treatments. No consensus on the prevalence of NP post SCI currently exists, hence this systematic review was undertaken. The review comprised three phases: a methodological assessment of databases [PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro)] identifying potential papers and screening for inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers; data extraction; and finally rating of internal validity and strength of the evidence, using a published valid and reliable scale. Meta‐analysis estimated pooled point prevalence rates using a random effects model. In total, 17 studies involving 2529 patients were included in the review. Overall point prevalence rates for NP were established at 53% (38.58–67.47); 19% (13.26–26.39) for at‐level NP and 27% (19.89–34.61) for below‐level NP, with high heterogeneity noted (I2 = 84–93%). Prevalence rates for NP following SCI are high. Future studies should include established definitions, classification systems and assessment tools for NP at defined time points post SCI to follow the trajectory of this problem across the lifespan and include indices of sleep, mood and interference to allow for appropriate, optimal and timely NP management for each patient.
      303Scopus© Citations 187
  • Publication
    An internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programme for spinal cord injury pain: A randomized controlled trial
    Background: Chronic pain is common after spinal cord injury (SCI) and dedicated SCI cognitive behavioural therapy pain management programmes (CBT-PMPs) have a growing evidence base to support their uptake clinically. The development of internet-delivered treatment options may overcome barriers to the access and uptake of centre-based programmes. This study examines such an approach on quality of lie (QoL), pain, mood and sleep. Methods: Adults with SCI pain (>3 months) were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention comprised a six module CBT-PMP delivered once weekly. A blinded assessor determined changes in self-reported outcome measures post-intervention and at 3 months. Linear mixed models and effect sizes based on changes between groups were reported. Significance was set p < 0.05. Results: The recruitment rate was 32% (intervention n = 35, control n = 34), and the drop-out rate at 3 months was 26%. On average, participants accessed three (SD 2.1) of six modules. While no difference in QoL was reported, a significant group*time interaction was found for NRS of current pain (χ2 = 8.22, p = 0.016), worst pain (χ2 = 11.20, p = 0.004), and Brief Pain Inventory (interference) (χ2 = 6.924, p = 0.031). Moderate to large effect sizes favouring the intervention were demonstrated at each time point for the pain metrics (Cohen's d: 0.38–0.84). At 3-month follow-up, 48% of the intervention group rated themselves improved or very much improved (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential of an internet-delivered SCI specific CBT-PMP in reporting significant statistical and clinical benefit in pain intensity and interference. Strategies to improve engagement are needed.
      265Scopus© Citations 18
  • Publication
    An investigation of healthcare utilization and its association with levels of health literacy in individuals with chronic pain
    Objective: Chronic pain patients are frequent and recurrent users of health services, which may have an impact on levels of health literacy (HL). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate associations between healthcare utilization and varying levels of HL in individuals with and without chronic pain. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed in three pain clinics in Dublin, Ireland, comprising a demographic section, a validated HL assessment tool (Newest Vital Sign) and self-reported healthcare utilization in the previous year (i.e., general practitioner [GP] visits, accident and emergency room attendance, hospital services and allied health services). Patients with chronic pain, and a control group (no pain) were recruited. Results: Overall, 262 participants were recruited: those with chronic pain (n = 131) and controls (n = 131). Those in the chronic pain group were more likely to be female (p = 0.004), have less education (p = 0.01), be unable to work (p < 0.001), have a lower monthly income (p = 0.001), be more likely to have a medical card (i.e., free access to public health services) (p = 0.002) and have a greater number of comorbidities (p < 0.0001). Although bivariate analyses demonstrated increased healthcare utilization in chronic pain patients (i.e., GP visits, hospital services and allied therapies; p < 0.05), there was no difference in HL levels between groups in multivariate analysis (chronic pain: 54%, n = 71; control group 49%, n = 64; p = 0.39). Higher educational attainment, greater levels of income and being younger remained independently associated with higher levels of HL. Conclusions: Further research is needed to understand the nature of how HL is acquired, both from individual and organizational perspectives. Once this has been established, it may facilitate the development or advancement of current HL-sensitive management strategies.
      328Scopus© Citations 6