Now showing 1 - 10 of 40
  • Publication
    Study of translational, librational and intra-molecular motion of adsorbed liquid water monolayers at various TiO2 interfaces
    Equilibrium classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the vibrational motion of water in contact with rutile-(110), rutile-(100), rutile-(001), anatase-(101) and anatase-(001) surfaces at room temperature (300 K). The vibrational density of states (VDOS) of the first adsorbed monolayer of liquid water has been analysed for each surface. These have been compared with reported experimental INS values involving rutile and anatase polymorph surfaces, along with ab initio MD results. It is observed that good qualitative agreement is obtained for the rutile-(110) and the anatase-(101) surfaces with the corresponding experimental VDOS. A significant contribution from librational dynamics is found for planar rutile surfaces, but no such demarcation is seen in the experimental VDOS.
    Scopus© Citations 27  760
  • Publication
    A TD-DFT study of the effects of structural variations on the photochemistry of polyene dyes
    We report a TD-DFT study of three polyene dyes namely: NKX-2553, NKX-2554 and NKX-2569 in isolation as well as upon their adsorption on TiO2 nanoparticles. By choosing closely related dyes we wish to focus on the effects of structural variations on the absorption and charge-transfer properties of these systems. These three dyes show a non-intuitive trend in their respective efficiencies and therefore, were chosen to shed light on the structural components that contribute to this behaviour. Although, NKX-2554 has an additional donor group, it is less efficient compared to the simpler NKX-2553 dye that contains only one donor group. When NKX-2554 structure is slightly modified by lengthening the linker-group, one obtains the most efficient dye among this set, namely, NKX-2569. In this work, we show that the changes in the donor moiety has very little or no effect on the efficiency of these dyes as can be seen in the case of NKX-2553 and NKX-2554. On the other hand, the improved performance of NKX-2569-titania complex can be understood to be a result of the longer linker group. A better understanding of these properties within different dye-titania complexes is important for the continual improvement of DSSCs. In this regards, this study will serve to provide guidelines to improve efficiencies of novel organic dyes.
    Scopus© Citations 39  925
  • Publication
    First-principles calculation of nitrogen-tungsten codoping effects on the band structure of anatase-titania
    (American Institute of Physics, 2009-04-02) ;
    The electronic properties and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen (N) and/or tungsten (W)-doped anatase are calculated using density functional theory. For N-doping, isolated N 2p states above the top of the valence band are responsible for experimentally observed redshifts in the optical absorption edge. For W-doping, W 5d states below the conduction band lead to band gap narrowing; the transition energy is reduced by 0.2 eV. Addition of W to the N-doped system yields significant band gap narrowing gap by 0.5 eV. This rationalizes recent experimental data which showed that N/W-doped titania exhibits higher visible-light photocatalytic efficiency than either N- or W-doping alone.
    Scopus© Citations 121  1530
  • Publication
    Molecular dynamics study of water in contact with the TiO2 rutile-110, 100, 101, 001 and anatase-101, 001 surface
    We have carried out classical molecular dynamics of various surfaces of TiO2 with its interface with water. We report the geometrical features of the first and second monolayers of water using a Matsui Akaogi (MA) force field for the TiO2 surface and a flexible single point charge model for the water molecules. We show that the MA force field can be applied to surfaces other than rutile (110). It was found that water OH bond lengths, H–O–H bond angles and dipole moments do not vary due to the nature of the surface. However, their orientation within the first and second monolayers suggest that planar rutile (001) and anatase (001) surfaces may play an important role in not hindering removal of the products formed on these surfaces. Also, we discuss the effect of surface termination in order to explain the layering of water molecules throughout the simulation box.
    Scopus© Citations 82  447
  • Publication
    Hydrogen bond dynamical properties of adsorbed liquid water monolayers with various TiO2 interfaces
    Equilibrium classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the hydrogen bonding kinetics of water in contact with rutile-(110), rutile-(101), rutile-(100), and anatase-(101) surfaces at room temperature (300 K). It was observed that anatase-(101) exhibits the longest-lived hydrogen bonds in terms of overall persistence, followed closely by rutile-(110). The relaxation times, defined as the integral of the autocorrelation of the hydrogen bond persistence function, were also larger for these two cases, while decay of autocorrelation function was slower. The increased number and overall persistence of hydrogen bonds in the adsorbed water monolayers at these surfaces, particularly for anatase-(101), may serve to promote possible water photolysis activity thereon.
    Scopus© Citations 25  651
  • Publication
    Influence of doping on the photoactive properties of magnetron-sputtered titania coatings: Experimental and theoretical study
    (American Physical Society, 2012-09) ; ; ;
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films, doped with chromium (Cr) and codoped with chromium-carbon (Cr, C) and chromium-nitrogen (Cr, N) of various concentrations, were deposited using magnetron sputtering. Postdeposition thermal treatments were carried out at 450 ◦C for 5 h to change the as-deposited amorphous coatings to their crystalline form. The crystalline phase was found to be dependent on the amount and type of dopant present. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption data and band gap energies calculated by spectroscopic ellipsometry showed that, on increasing Cr concentration, a shift of the absorption edge towards visible light and a reduction of the band gap occurred. This was further improved by codoping of Cr with either N or C, with the latter case exhibiting more photo-activity towards visible light. In addition, hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for Cr-, N-. and C-monodoping, together with Cr-C and Cr-N codoping, in both rutile and anatase phases of crystalline titania. Using this method, absorption coefficients and band gaps were determined to explore photo-activity. Very good, semiquantitative agreement was found between the DFT and experimental approaches for these quantities, underlining the key role of state-of-the-art quantum calculations in interpreting and guiding experimental studies of doping in metal oxides.
    Scopus© Citations 22  609
  • Publication
    Dispersion and Solvation Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of N719 Adsorbed to Anatase Titania (101) Surfaces in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids: An ab Initio Molecular Simulation Study
    Ab initio, density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics (MD) has been carried out to investigate the effect of explicit solvation on the dynamical and structural properties of a [bmim][NTf2] room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), solvating a N719 sensitizing dye adsorbed onto an anatase titania (101) surface. The effect of explicit dispersion on the properties of this dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) interface has also been studied. Upon inclusion of dispersion interactions in simulations of the solvated system, the average separation between the cations and anions decreases by 0.6 Å; the mean distance between the cations and the surface decreases by about 0.5 Å; and the layering of the RTIL is significantly altered in the first layer surrounding the dye, with the cation being on average 1.5 Å further from the center of the dye. Inclusion of dispersion effects when a solvent is not explicitly included (to dampen longer-range interactions) can result in unphysical "kinking" of the adsorbed dye's configuration. The inclusion of solvent shifts the HOMO and LUMO levels of the titania surface by +3 eV. At this interface, the interplay between the effects of dispersion and solvation combines in ways that are often subtle, such as enhancement or inhibition of specific vibrational modes.
    Scopus© Citations 9  362
  • Publication
    Diffusive hydrogen inter-cage migration in hydrogen and hydrogen-tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrates
    (American Institute of Physics, 2013-03-07) ; ;
    Classical equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate the diffusive properties of inter-cage hydrogen migration in both pure hydrogen and mixed hydrogen-tetrahydrofuran sII hydrates at 0.05 kbar from 200 K and up to 250-260 K. For mixed H2- THF systems in which there is single H2 occupation of the small cage (labelled ‘1SC 1LC’), we found that no H2 migration occurs. However, for more densely-filled H2-THF and pure- H2 systems, in which there is more than single H2 occupation in the small cage, there is an onset of inter-cage H2 migration events from the small cages to neighbouring cavities at around 200 K. The mean square displacements of the hydrogen molecules were fitted to a mathematical model consisting of an anomalous term and a Fickian component, and non-linear regression fitting was conducted to estimate long-time (inter-cage) diffusivities. An approximate Arrhenius temperature relationship for the diffusion coefficient was examined and a rough estimation of the hydrogen hopping energy barrier was calculated for each system.
    Scopus© Citations 48  441
  • Publication
    A systematic study via ab-initio MD of the effect solvation by room temperature ionic liquid has on the structure of a chromophore-titania interface
    (Elsevier, 2018-01) ;
    Ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT)-based molecular dynamics (MD) has been carried out to investigate the effect with which the choice of functional has on the structural properties of a [bmim]+[NTf2]− room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), solvating a N719 sensitising dye adsorbed onto an anatase-titania (1 0 1) surface. A systematic, fully crossed study has been carried out, comparing the BLYP and PBE functionals, both unsolvated and solvated by the RTIL as well as with and without Grimme D3 dispersion corrections.
    Scopus© Citations 4  440
  • Publication
    Density functional theory studies of doping in Titania
    (Taylor and Francis, 2010-06) ;
    The structural and electronic properties of rutile and anatase, and the influence of both mono- and co-doping, have been studied using Density Functional Theory. Ge-doped anatase and rutile exhibit different band gap-narrowing mechanisms; in particular, host Ti 3d states move to lower energy regions in anatase and Ge 4s impurities states locate below the conduction band of rutile. For S-doping, S 3p states locate above the top of the valence band and mix with O 2p states, leading to band gap narrowing. For Bi-doping, the energy levels of the Bi 6s states lie below the bottom of the conduction band while the Fermi level EF lies above the gap states, indicating the gap states are fully occupied. For Bi/S–codoping, both S 3p acceptor states and partially occupied Bi 6s donor states hybridised with S 3p appear simultaneously. For N- and W-monodoping, isolated N 2p states above the top of the valence band and W 5d states below the conduction band lead to band gap narrowing. N/W codoping yields significant band gap narrowing. Both studies for Bi/S and N/W codoping rationalise recent experimental data which show that these doped anatase systems exhibit higher visible-light photocatalytic efficiency than respective monodoping.
      2228Scopus© Citations 12