Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Publication
    Identification of Receptor Binding to the Biomolecular Corona of Nanoparticles
    Biomolecules adsorbed on nanoparticles are known to confer a biological identity to nanoparticles, mediating the interactions with cells and biological barriers. However, how these molecules are presented on the particle surface in biological milieu remains unclear. The central aim of this study is to identify key protein recognition motifs and link them to specific cell-receptor interactions. Here, we employed an immuno-mapping technique to quantify epitope presentations of two major proteins in the serum corona, low-density lipoprotein and immunoglobulin G. Combining with a purpose-built receptor expression system, we show that both proteins present functional motifs to allow simultaneous recognition by low-density lipoprotein receptor and Fc-gamma receptor I of the corona. Our results suggest that the “labeling” of nanoparticles by biomolecular adsorption processes allows for multiple pathways in biological processes in which they may be “mistaken” for endogenous objects, such as lipoproteins, and exogenous ones, such as viral infections.
      543Scopus© Citations 183
  • Publication
    Transferrin-functionalized nanoparticles lose their targeting capabilities when a biomolecule corona adsorbs on the surface
    Nanoparticles have been proposed as carriers for drugs, genes and therapies to treat various diseases1, 2. Many strategies have been developed to target nanomaterials to specific or over-expressed receptors in diseased cells, and these typically involve functionalizing the surface of nanoparticles with proteins, antibodies or other biomolecules. Here, we show that the targeting ability of such functionalized nanoparticles may disappear when they are placed in a biological environment. Using transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles, we found that proteins in the media can shield transferrin from binding to both its targeted receptors on cells and soluble transferrin receptors. Although nanoparticles continue to enter cells, the targeting specificity of transferrin is lost. Our results suggest that when nanoparticles are placed in a complex biological environment, interaction with other proteins in the medium and the formation of a protein corona3, 4 can ‘screen’ the targeting molecules on the surface of nanoparticles and cause loss of specificity in targeting.
      3055Scopus© Citations 1472
  • Publication
    Labrasol® is an efficacious intestinal permeation enhancer across rat intestine: Ex vivo and in vivo rat studies
    Labrasol® ALF (Labrasol®), is a non-ionic surfactant excipient primarily used as a solubilising agent. It was investigated here as an intestinal permeation enhancer in isolated rat colonic mucosae in Ussing chamber and in rat in situ intestinal instillations. Labrasol® comprises mono-, di- and triglycerides and mono- and di- fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8 and free PEG-8, with caprylic (C8)- and capric acid (C10) as the main fatty acids. Source components of Labrasol® as well as Labrasol® modified with either C8 or C10 as the sole fatty acid components were also tested to determine which element of Labrasol® was responsible for its permeability-enhancing properties. Labrasol® (4, 8 mg/ml) enhanced the transport of the paracellular markers, [14C] mannitol, FITC-dextran 4000, and FITC-insulin across colonic mucosae. The enhancement was non-damaging, transient, and molecular weight-dependent. The PEG ester fraction of Labrasol® also had enhancing properties. When insulin was administered with Labrasol® in instillations, it had a relative bioavailability of 7% in jejunum and 12% in colon. C8- and C10 versions of Labrasol® and the PEG ester fraction also induced similar bioavailability values in jejunal instillations: 6, 5 and 7% respectively. Inhibition of lipases in instillations did not reduce the efficacy of Labrasol®, suggesting that its mechanism as a PE is not simply due to liberated medium chain fatty acids. Labrasol® acts as an efficacious intestinal permeation enhancer and has potential for use in oral formulations of macromolecules and BCS Class III molecules.
      755Scopus© Citations 77
  • Publication
    Mapping of Molecular Structure of the Nanoscale Surface in Bionanoparticles
    Characterizing the orientation of covalently conjugated proteins on nanoparticles, produced for in vitro and in vivo targeting, though an important feature of such a system, has proved challenging. Although extensive physicochemical characterization of targeting nanoparticles can be addressed in detail, relevant biological characterization of the nanointerface is crucial in order to select suitable nanomaterials for further in vitro or in vivo experiments. In this work, we adopt a methodology using antibody fragments (Fab) conjugated to gold nanoparticles (immunogold) to map the available epitopes on a transferrin grafted silica particle (SiO2−PEG8−Tf) as a proxy methodology to predict nanoparticle biological function, and therefore cellular receptor engagement. Data from the adopted method suggest that, on average, only∼3.5% of proteins grafted on the SiO2−PEG8−Tf nanoparticle surface have a favorable orientation for recognition by the cellular receptor.
  • Publication
    Using single nanoparticle tracking obtained by nanophotonic force microscopy to simultaneously characterize nanoparticle size distribution and nanoparticle-surface interactions
    Comprehensive characterization of nanomaterials for medical applications is a challenging and complex task due to the multitude of parameters which need to be taken into consideration in a broad range of conditions. Routine methods such as dynamic light scattering or nanoparticle tracking analysis provide some insight into the physicochemical properties of particle dispersions. For nanomedicine applications the information they supply can be of limited use. For this reason, there is a need for new methodologies and instruments that can provide additional data on nanoparticle properties such as their interactions with surfaces. Nanophotonic force microscopy has been shown as a viable method for measuring the force between surfaces and individual particles in the nano-size range. Here we outline a further application of this technique to measure the size of single particles and based on these measurement build the distribution of a sample. We demonstrate its efficacy by comparing the size distribution obtained with nanophotonic force microscopy to established instruments, such as dynamic light scattering and differential centrifugal sedimentation. Our results were in good agreement to those observed with all other instruments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the methodology developed in this work can be used to study complex particle mixtures and the surface alteration of materials. For all cases studied, we were able to obtain both the size and the interaction potential of the particles with a surface in a single measurement.
      346Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Impact of dynamic sub-populations within grafted chains on the protein binding and colloidal stability of PEGylated nanoparticles
    Polyethylene glycol grafting has played a central role in preparing the surfaces of nano-probes for biological interaction, to extend blood circulation times and to modulate protein recognition and cellular uptake. However, the role of PEG graft dynamics and conformation in determining surface recognition processes is poorly understood primarily due to the absence of a microscopic picture of the surface presentation of the polymer. Here a detailed NMR analysis reveals three types of dynamic ethylene glycol units on PEG-grafted SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) of the type commonly evaluated as long-circulating theranostic nano-probes; a narrow fraction with fast dynamics associated with the chain ends; a broadened fraction spectrally overlapped with the former arising from those parts of the chain experiencing some dynamic restriction; and a fraction too broad to be observed in the spectrum arising from units closer to the surface/graft which undergo slow motion on the NMR timescale. We demonstrate that ethylene glycol units transition between fractions as a function of temperature, core size, PEG chain length and surface coverage and demonstrate how this distribution affects colloidal stability and protein uptake. The implications of the findings for biological application of grafted nanoparticles are discussed in the context of accepted models for surface ligand conformation. This journal is
      13Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Add Sugar to Chitosan: Mucoadhesion and In Vitro Intestinal Permeability of Mannosylated Chitosan Nanocarriers
    Crosslinked chitosan nanocarriers (140–160 nm) entrapping coumarin-6 (λex/em = 455/508 nm) with or without surface mannosylation were synthesized and assessed for cytotoxicity, adherence and cellular uptake in Caco-2 cells, flux across Caco-2 monolayers, and mucoadhesion to porcine mucin. Mannosylated and non-mannosylated nanocarriers demonstrated biocompatibility with slow release of coumarin-6 at pH 6.8 and 7.4 over 24 h. Adherence of the non-mannosylated nanocarriers (50 and 150 µg/mL) to Caco-2 cells was ~10% over 24 h, whereas cellular uptake of 25–30% was noted at 4 h. The mannosylated nanocarriers showed a similar adherence to non-mannosylated nanocarriers after 24 h, but a lower cellular uptake (~20%) at 1 h, comparable uptake at 4 h, and a higher uptake (~25–30%)t at 24 h. Overall, the nanocarriers did not affect the integrity of Caco-2 monolayers. Manno-sylated nanocarriers elicited higher Papp of 1.6 × 10−6 cm/s (50 µg/mL) and 1.2 × 10−6 (150 µg/mL) than the non-mannosylated ones: 9.8 × 10−7 cm/s (50 µg/mL) and 1.0 × 10−6 (150 µg/mL) after 2 h. Non-mannosylated chitosan nanocarriers elicited enhanced adhesion to porcine gut mucin via mucin-filled microchannels due to higher cationic charge density. These results underpin the importance of surface chemistry in the biological interactions of nanocarriers, while highlighting the role of surface hydrophilicity in mucopermeation due to mannosylation.
      28Scopus© Citations 7