Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    The effect of 25‐hydroxyvitamin D3 and phytase inclusion on pig performance, bone parameters and pork quality in finisher pigs
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing both phytase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) on pig performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, bone parameters and pork quality in finisher pigs. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial comprising of four dietary treatments. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were blocked according to live weight and sex and allocated to the following dietary treatments: low P (4.81 g/kg) diet (basal) (T1); low P diet + phytase (T2); low P diet + 25-OH-D₃ (T3) and low P diet + phytase + 25-OH-D₃ (T4). Pigs supplemented with phytase had a lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.45 kg vs. 2.59 kg; p < 0.05) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.74 kg/kg vs. 2.85 kg/kg; p < 0.05) compared to pigs offered the nonphytase diets. Pigs offered phytase diets had a higher (p < 0.05) coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of ash, phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca) compared with pigs offered the nonphytase supplemented diets. Pigs offered the 25-OH-D3 diets had a higher CATTD of N and ash. Pigs offered the phytase diets had increased (p < 0.05) bone DM, ash, Ca, P and density compared to the nonphytase diets. There was a significant interaction (p < 0.05) between phytase and 25-OH-D3 on cook loss. Pigs offered 25-OH-D3 had increased cook loss over the basal diet; however, there was no effect on cook loss when phytase and 25-OH-D3 were offered in combination compared to the phytase only diet. Pigs offered 25-OH-D3 exhibited higher (p < 0.05) Warner Bratzler shear force values and lower (p < 0.05) pork lightness (L*) surface colorimeter values. In conclusion, there was no benefit to offering a combination of phytase and 25-OH-D3 on pig performance, bone parameters or pork quality.
    Scopus© Citations 19  516
  • Publication
    Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from early and late maturing bulls in different production systems
    (Cambridge University Press, 2017-09) ; ; ;
    In grass-based beef production systems (PS), early maturing (EM) breed types may be preferable to late maturing (LM) breed types in achieving adequate carcass fat cover. Biochemical and organoleptic characteristics of muscle from suckler bulls were investigated in EM and LM (n=28/breed) assigned to one of two PS (ad libitum concentrates and grass silage to slaughter (C) or ad libitum silage plus 2 kg concentrate daily during winter followed by 99 days at pasture and then an indoor finishing period on C (GSPC)) in a 2 breed type×2 PS factorial arrangement of treatments. Bulls were managed to have a common target carcass weight of 380 kg. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content was higher (P<0.05) for EM than LM, and for C than GSPC bulls. Collagen solubility was higher (P<0.05) for C than GSPC bulls. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and phosphofructokinase activities were higher (P<0.05) for LM than EM. Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and the Type I myosin heavy chain (MyHC) proportion were higher (P<0.05) for EM than LM. The LDH activity and the Type IIX MyHC proportion were higher (P<0.05) for C than GSPC bulls. Sensory ratings for tenderness and juiciness were higher (P<0.01) for beef from EM than LM while sensory ratings for tenderness, flavour liking and overall liking were higher (P<0.001) for C than for GSPC bulls. Differences in sensory quality were largely eliminated when adjusted for IMF. Overall, carcass fat scores, IMF and sensory scores were higher in EM than LM and in C than GSPC bulls but most differences in sensory quality could be attributed to differences in IMF.
      306Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Consumer evaluations of processed meat products reformulated to be healthier - A conjoint analysis study
    Recent innovations in processed meats focus on healthier reformulations through reducing negative constituents and/or adding health beneficial ingredients. This study explored the influence of base meat product (ham, sausages, beef burger), salt and/or fat content (reduced or not), healthy ingredients (omega 3, vitamin E, none), and price (average or higher than average) on consumers' purchase intention and quality judgement of processed meats. A survey (n = 481) using conjoint methodology and cluster analysis was conducted. Price and base meat product were most important for consumers' purchase intention, followed by healthy ingredient and salt and/or fat content. In reformulation, consumers had a preference for ham and sausages over beef burgers, and for reduced salt and/or fat over non reduction. In relation to healthy ingredients, omega 3 was preferred over none, and vitamin E was least preferred. Healthier reformulations improved the perceived healthiness of processed meats. Cluster analyses identified three consumer segments with different product preferences.
      256Scopus© Citations 93
  • Publication
    Volatile Profile of Grilled Lamb as Affected by Castration and Age at Slaughter in Two Breeds
    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of castration and slaughter age on the volatile profile of cooked meat from Scottish Blackface (SB) and Texel × Scottish Blackface (T × SB) lambs. M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sampled at slaughter and subjected to volatile analysis by SPME-GC-MS. Rams had higher relative proportions, expressed as relative abundance (RA), in lipid oxidation products while castrates had higher RA in pyrazines and benzenoid compounds. There was no consistent age effect on the RA of volatiles, although rams in November and January had a different volatile profile to castrates. There were higher proportions of free branched-chain fatty acids in muscle from SB compared to T × SB lambs. Overall, the results showed that production factors affected the volatile profile of cooked lamb meat which may explain differences in lamb flavor. Practical Application: Lamb meat has a characteristic flavor which, according to the evidence to date, may be influenced by farm production factors like gender or slaughter age. Our results showed variations in the proportions of some flavor compounds in cooked lamb between rams and castrated lambs while an increase in slaughter age did not have a consistent effect on proportions of compounds.
      698Scopus© Citations 42
  • Publication
    Effect of finishing diet and duration on the sensory quality and volatile profile of lamb meat
    Animal production factors can affect the sensory quality of lamb meat. The study investigated the effect of diet composition and duration of consumption on the proximate analysis, volatile profile and sensory quality of lamb meat. Ninety-nine male Texel × Scottish Blackface lambs were raised at pasture for 10 months before being assigned in groups of 11 to one of the following treatments: 100% Silage (S) for 36 (S36), 54 (S54) or 72 (S72) days; 50% Silage - 50% Concentrate (SC) for 36 (SC36), 54 (SC54) or 72 (SC72) days; 100% Concentrate (C) for 36 (C36) or 54 (C54) or 72 (C72) days. A trained sensory panel found Intensity of Lamb Aroma, Dry Aftertaste and Astringent Aftertaste to be higher in meat from lambs on the concentrate diet. Discriminant analysis showed that the volatile profile enabled discrimination of lamb based on dietary treatment but the volatile differences were insufficient to impact highly on sensory quality. Muscle from animals in the S54 group had higher Manure/Faecal Aroma and Woolly Aroma than the SC54 and C54 groups, possibly related to higher levels of indole and skatole. Further research is required to establish if these small differences would influence consumer acceptability.
      488Scopus© Citations 37
  • Publication
    The use of synthetic and natural vitamin D sources in pig diets to improve meat quality and vitamin D content
    This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary treatments were (1)50 μg vitamin D₃/kg of feed; (2)50 μg of 25-hydroxvitamin D₃/kg of feed (25-OH-D₃); (3)50 μg vitamin D₂/kg of feed; (4)50 μg vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms/kg of feed (Mushroom D₂). The pigs offered the 25-OH-D₃ diet exhibited the highest (P < 0.001) serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequently exhibited the highest (P < 0.05) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity. Mushroom D2 and 25-OH-D3 supplementation increased pork antioxidant status. The vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms improved (P < 0.05) pig performance, carcass weight and LT colour. In conclusion, 25-OH-D₃ is the most successful source for increasing pork vitamin D activity, while Mushroom D2 may be a new avenue to improve animal performance and pork quality.
    Scopus© Citations 47  398
  • Publication
    A consumer study of the effect of castration and slaughter age of lambs on the sensory quality of meat
    Meat from ram lambs is often considered inferior to meat from castrated lambs, especially in older or heavier animals. This study aimed to determine if differences exist in the sensory quality and acceptability of meat from rams and castrates, slaughtered at mean ages of 196 or 385 days. Rams had higher average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, total weight gain and lower carcass fatness than castrates. A triangle test (n = 81 consumers) showed a difference (P < 0.05) in the sensory quality of meat from rams vs castrates. A 9-point hedonic test involving 100 consumers showed that, although meat from both rams and castrates was ‘liked’, meat from castrates scored higher (P < 0.05) in Overall Liking, Flavour Liking and Tenderness Liking. Meat from castrates was also rated lower (P < 0.05) in Unpleasant Taste/Off-Flavour Intensity. Flavour Intensity and Unpleasant Taste/Off-Flavour Intensity increased (P < 0.05) with age at slaughter. This consumer study revealed that while meat from castrates was higher in Overall Liking, Flavour Liking and Tenderness Liking and lower in Unpleasant Taste/Off-Flavour Intensity than meat from rams, both meats were ‘liked’ by consumers.
      472Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats
    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences existed in terms of the attitudes and purchase intention. Following regression analysis, consumers' purchase intention towards enriched processed meat was primarily driven by their attitudes towards the product concept. Perceived healthiness of existing products and eating frequency of processed meat were also positively associated with the purchase intention. Other factors such as general food choice motives, socio-demographic characteristics, consumer health and the consumption of functional foods and dietary supplements in general, were not significant predictors of the purchase intention for enriched processed meat.