Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Publication
    Estimated nitrous oxide emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use on multispecies grassland compared to monocultures
    Grassland agriculture faces increasing demands in terms of sustainability; economic, social, and environmental. Soils are critical to sustainable agriculture, in terms of maintaining soil fertility and quality, protecting water quality and mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is evidence to suggest that greater sward diversity may have benefits in this regard. We report results from SmartGrass; a three year field study at two sites in Ireland investigating grass sward diversity along a gradient from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) monoculture to grass-legume mixes to more complex grass-legume-herb mixes of up to nine species. Results reported include estimates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertiliser nitrogen (N), soil temperature and moisture conditions, plant-available soil N, changes in soil organic carbon (C) and plant-available phosphorus (P). Estimated direct N2O emissions from N fertiliser (g N2O-N t DM-1 ha-1 yr-1) decreased from 146 for the monoculture at 250 kg fertiliser N ha-1 yr-1 to 35 for the monoculture at 90 kg fertiliser N ha-1 yr-1, to approximately 16 for the grass-legume and grass-legume-herb mixes, also at 90 kg fertiliser N ha-1 yr-1. This was due to a combination of the grass-clover and mixed swards maintaining high DM yields at low fertiliser N input, and the fact that the fertiliser N for these treatments was applied entirely as urea. These results indicate significant potential for more diverse swards to mitigate GHG emissions from fertiliser N use in grassland agriculture.
  • Publication
    Development and implementation of a 'Mental Health Finder' software tool within an electronic medical record system
    In Ireland, as in many other healthcare systems, mental health service provision is being reconfigured with a move toward more care in the community, and particularly primary care. Recording and surveillance systems for mental health information and activities in primary care are needed for service planning and quality improvement. We describe the development and initial implementation of a software tool ('mental health finder') within a widely used primary care electronic medical record system (EMR) in Ireland to enable large-scale data collection on the epidemiology and management of mental health and substance use problems among patients attending general practice. In collaboration with the Irish Primary Care Research Network (IPCRN), we developed the 'Mental Health Finder' as a software plug-in to a commonly used primary care EMR system to facilitate data collection on mental health diagnoses and pharmacological treatments among patients. The finder searches for and identifies patients based on diagnostic coding and/or prescribed medicines. It was initially implemented among a convenience sample of six GP practices. Prevalence of mental health and substance use problems across the six practices, as identified by the finder, was 9.4% (range 6.9-12.7%). 61.9% of identified patients were female; 25.8% were private patients. One-third (33.4%) of identified patients were prescribed more than one class of psychotropic medication. Of the patients identified by the finder, 89.9% were identifiable via prescribing data, 23.7% via diagnostic coding. The finder is a feasible and promising methodology for large-scale data collection on mental health problems in primary care.
      540ScopusĀ© Citations 3