Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
  • Publication
    STELLA software as a tool for modelling phosphorus removal in a constructed wetland employing dewatered alum sludge as main substrate
    A dynamic simulation model was developed for the removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from the vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) using a dynamic software program called STELLA (structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation) 9.1.3 to aid in simulating the environmental nature and succession of relationship between interdependent components and processes in the VFCW system. In particular, the VFCW employed dewatered alum sludge as its main substrate to enhance phosphorus (P) immobilization. Although computer modelling of P in treatment wetland has been well studied especially in recent years, there is still a need to develop simple and realistic models that can be used for investigating the dynamics of SRP in VFCWs. The state variables included in the model are dissolved phosphorus (DISP), plant phosphorus (PLAP), detritus phosphorus (DETP), plant biomass (PLBI) and adsorbed phosphorus (ADSP). The major P transformation processes considered in this study were adsorption, plant and microbial uptake and decomposition. The forcing functions which were considered in the model are temperature, radiation, volume of wastewater, P concentration, contact time, flow rate and the adsorbent (i.e. alum sludge). The model results revealed that up to 72% of the SRP can be removed through adsorption process whereas the uptake by plants is about 20% and the remaining processes such as microbial P utilization and decomposition, accounted for 7% SRP removal based on the mass balance calculations. The results obtained indicate that the model can be used to simulate outflow SRP concentration, and it can also be used to estimate the amount of P removed by individual processes in the VFCW using alum-sludge as a substrate.
      1910Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Development of alum sludge-based constructed wetland : an innovative and cost-effective system for wastewater treatment
    (Taylor & Francis, 2009-05) ; ; ;
    This paper describes (in a summarised manner) a research attempt to integrate the dewatered alum sludge, a residual by-product of drinking water treatment process, into a constructed wetland (CW) system for the purpose of enhancing the wastewater treatment performance, thus developing a so called alum sludge-based constructed wetland system. A multi-dimensional research project including the batch tests of phosphorus (P) adsorption onto alum sludge followed by the model CWs trials of single and multi-stage CWs, has been conducted since 2004. It has been successfully demonstrated that the alum sludge-based CW is capable of enhanced and simultaneous removal of P and organic matter (in terms of BOD5 and COD), particularly from medium and high strength wastewater. The sludge cakes act as the carrier for developing biofilm for organics removal and also serve as adsorbent to enhance P immobilization. Batch P-adsorption tests revealed that the alum sludge tested possesses excellent P-adsorption ability of 14.3 mg-P/g.sludge (in dry solids) at pH 7.0 with the adsorption favored at lower pH. The results obtained in a 4-stage treatment wetland system suggest that high removal efficiencies of 90.4% for COD, 88.0% for BOD5, 90.6% for SS, 76.5% for TN and 91.9% for PO43--P under hydraulic loading of 0.36m3/m2·d can be achieved. The field demonstration study of this pioneering development is now underway.
      2178Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    Effects of livestock wastewater variety and disinfectants on the performance of constructed wetlands in organic matters and nitrogen removal
    Background, aim and scope: Treatment performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) is largely dependent on the characteristics of the wastewater. Although livestock wastewater is readily biodegradable in general, its variety in biodegradability can still be significant in practice. In addition, it is a common practice to periodically use disinfectants in livestock activities for health concerns. Obviously, the residual of the disinfectants in livestock wastewater may have serious inhibitory effect on the microbial activities during wastewater treatment. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the variety of livestock wastewater in biodegradability and its effect on the performance of a pilot scale tidal flow CWs (TFCWs) in organic matter and nitrogen removal. Furthermore, investigation of the potential inhibition of the chosen disinfectants on organic matter biodegradation and nitrification was another aim of this study. Materials and methods: The TFCWs system consisted of four-stage downflow reed beds with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.29 m3/m2·per day. Long-term stored livestock wastewater and fresh livestock wastewater were used, respectively, as feed to the system in different periods. Meanwhile, batch aeration tests were carried out to investigate the difference in biodegradation of the two types of wastewaters. Inhibitions of two types of disinfectants, namely UNIPRED and HYPROCLOR ED, on microbial activities were investigated in laboratory batch tests, with dosage of from 0.05% to 0.5%. Results: With fresh livestock wastewater, removal efficiencies of up to 93% and 94% could be achieved with average of 73% and 64% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and TN, respectively. The performance deteriorated when the system was fed with long-term stored wastewater. In the batch tests, the long-time stored wastewater was characterized as non-biodegradable or at least very slowly biodegradable, while the fresh wastewater was readily biodegradable. UNIPRED showed very strong inhibition on both heterotrophic organisms and nitrifiers. Tested inhibition started from content of 0.05%, which is 1/10 of the recommended usage rate. Inhibitory effect of HYPROCLOR ED on COD degradation started from 0.1% and complete inhibition occurred from content of 0.3%, while significant inhibition on nitrification started from 0.1%. Conclusions: Livestock wastewater could vary significantly in biodegradability and it may turn to be non-biodegradable after a long-term storage. The variety of the livestock wastewater has a decisive influence on the performance of the CWs system, especially in TN elimination. In addition, the application of disinfectants UNIPRED and HYPROCLOR ED may cause serious inhibition on microbial activities and subsequent system failure.
      543Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    Investigation of phosphorus desorption from P-saturated alum sludge used as a substrate in constructed wetland
    (Elsevier, 2009-04-07) ;
    Phosphorus (P) desorption from P-saturated alum sludge, which was used as main substrate in a novel constructed wetland for wastewater treatment, was studied. Groups of batch experiments were designed and conducted to explore the efficiencies of P extraction using different acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4) and bases (NaOH, KOH). The results showed that either acid or base is efficient for P-extraction and the efficiency relied mainly on the concentrations of H+/OH-, not the type of acid or base. Considering the efficiency, price and safety of the acids and bases tested, H2SO4 was chosen as most suitable reagent for P-extraction. A Box-Behnken experimental design based on the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the optimum of H2SO4 extraction. The optimal condition for the mass of sludge, H2SO4 concentration and volume was 0.8 g, 0.063 M and 142 ml, respectively. At such optimal condition, the maximum P-extraction efficiency of 98.2 % was achieved. Additionally, most of the main components of the saturated sludge, such as metals (Al, Ca, Mg, Fe), TOC (total organic carbon) and nitrogen can also be extracted. Overall, the results supported that H2SO4 seems to be an efficient and cost-effective reagent among all the reagents tested for P-saturated alum sludge treatment.
      1048Scopus© Citations 37
  • Publication
    A two-prong approach of beneficial reuse of alum sludge in engineered wetland : first experience from Ireland
    Effective management of the industrial waste requires a sustainable approach that maximizes its value of reuse/recycle for other industrial demands and the environment needs. This paper aims in exploring the potential of the intended purposes in the newly developed dewatered aluminum-water treatment sludge (Al-WTS) based engineered wetland (EW) for wastewater treatment. Due to the low energy requirement and aesthetical appearance EW is seen as a ‘green’ wastewater treatment technique worldwide for a wide variety of wastewater treatment. The Al-WTS based EW developed at University College Dublin, Ireland, represents the latest initiative at using engineering ingenuity to further improve EWs performance. This paper summarizes the background of development and the results derived from different phases of the development of Al-WTS based EW.
      735Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Pilot field-scale demonstration of a novel alum sludge-based constructed wetland system for enhanced wastewater treatment
    In this study, beneficial reuse of the alum-contained drinking water treatment sludge is extended into developing a novel constructed wetland system (CWs) using the alum sludge as main substrate. The study reports on the first pilot field-scale alum sludge-based CWs operated in the tidal flow mode with enhanced capacity for phosphorus and organic matter removal from animal farm wastewater. The concept of the development is presented and this is followed by the performance analysis of the first CWs of its kind. The CWs consists of four identical compartments in series operated using a tidal flow strategy with a hydraulic loading rate of 0.29 m3/m2.d. First year analysis of the system’s performance shows that it is a unique and promising low-cost wastewater treatment system. The mean monthly removal efficiencies obtained was determined to range from 57%-84%, 36%-84%, 11%-78%, 49%-93%, 75%-94%, 73%-97% and 46%-83% for BOD5, COD, TN, NH4-N, TP, P (inorganic phosphorus) and SS. The system showed a distinct phosphorus removal and also, the system was effective in reducing levels of organics and ammonium-nitrogen. More importantly, the system showcases a novel reuse alternative for the alum sludge as opposed to its landfilling, demonstrating a win-win technique with a great potential for larger-scale application.
      1781Scopus© Citations 142
  • Publication
    Decolouration of H2SO4 leachate from phosphorus-saturated alum sludge using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes in phosphorus recovery strategy
    (Taylor & Francis, 2009-11) ;
    As a part of attempt for phosphorus (P) recovery from P-saturated alum sludge, which was used as a low-cost P-adsorbent in treatment reed bed for wastewater treatment, decolouration of H2SO4 leachate obtained from previous experiment, possessing a great deal of P, aluminum and red-brown coloured materials (RBCMs), by using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. The use of H2O2 and AOPs in the forms of Fenton (H2O2/Fe2+) and photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe2+) were tested. The changes in colour and total organic carbon (TOC) were taken place as a result of mineralization of RBCMs. The results revealed that all of these three processes examined were efficient. It was found that about 98 % colour and 47 % TOC can be removed under photo-Fenton treatment after 8 hours of UV irradiation. Correspondingly, the reaction rates of H2O2 and Fenton systems were slow, but 100 % colour and 59 % TOC removal of H2O2 process and 100 % colour and 67 % TOC reductions of Fenton process can be achieved after 72 hours of reaction. The changes of structure and molecular weight/size of RBCMs were also evaluated by HPLC and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis. From the results, some chromophores of RBCMs such as aromatic groups were appeared to be easily degraded to the smaller refractory components. Hence, based on the experimental results and considering the investment and expediency of operation, H2O2 and Fenton oxidation could be suitable technologies for the treatment of the RBCMs derived from P-extraction stage by using H2SO4 leaching.
      1466Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Alum sludge-based constructed wetland system for enhanced removal of P and OM from wastewater : concept, design and performance analysis
    The concept, design and performance analysis of a four-stage novel constructed wetland system (CWs) capable of enhanced and simultaneous removal of phosphorus (P) and organic matter (OM) from wastewaters is described. Alum sludge, a largely available by-product of drinking water facilities using aluminium salts as coagulant was used as the media. Under a hydraulic loading rate of 1.27 m3/m2.d and a range of organic loading rate of 279.4–774.7 g-BOD5/m2.d and 361.1–1028.7 g-COD/m2.d, average removal efficiencies (mean ±SD) of 90.6 ±7.5% for BOD5 and 71.8 ±10.2% for COD were achieved, respectively. P removal was exceptional with average removal efficiency of 97.6 ±1.9% achieved for soluble reactive P at a mean influent concentration of 21.0 ±2.9 mg/l. Overall, the system holds great promise as a novel CWs for simultaneous removal of P and OM, and at the same time, it transforms alum sludge from a waste into a useful material.
      1629Scopus© Citations 88
  • Publication
    Phosphorus recovery as AlPO 4 from beneficially reused aluminium sludge arising from water treatment
    (Informa UK (Taylor & Francis), 2013-01) ; ;
    The purpose of this study was to develop an efficient and, possibly, a practically operated methodology to recover phosphorus (P) from P-saturated dewatered aluminium sludge cakes (DASC) after the DASC have been beneficially reused as constructed wetlands substrate for P-rich wastewater treatment. A three-step procedure of 1) P extraction by H 2SO 4, 2) decolorization of extraction leachate via H 2O 2 oxidation, and 3) AlPO 4 precipitation by pH adjustment, has been explored. The optimal conditions to form the precipitates of AlPO 4 were determined, with 97% of P and 99% of Al being recovered. The obtained compounds were identified by XRD, FTIR and SEM analyses. Although the purity, structure, characteristics and production control of the compounds are worthy of further investigation, this study provides a showcase of a ‘closed loop’ regarding the beneficial reuse of a ‘waste’ and the recovery of useful elements after the reuse.
      490Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    An innovative solution for managing waterworks sludge : developing an alum sludge-based multi-stage constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment
    Waterworks sludge continues to be an inescapable by-product of the potable water treatment process. Accordingly, final disposal of the sludge remains one of the most significant pressing problems for the potable water treatment industry. The possibility of reusing the sludge as a main substrate in a novel constructed wetland system was investigated in this study. Results show that significant phosphorus (P) and other pollutants removal were achieved in the system. With a mean influent BOD5 (5-day biochemical oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) levels of 392.7 mg/l and 579.8 mg/l, respectively, a removal efficiency of 90.6 % and 71.8 %, respectively, was obtained. P removal was however exceptionally high despite the high influent mean P level of 45.3 mg-P/l, which is about 2-3 times the level of P commonly found in sewage. This is attributable to the P adsorption capacity of the alum sludge and this highlights the benefits of its reuse in the system. The paper presents and discusses the findings from a laboratory scale research, which has potential for further large scale implementation.