Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Redesign of Polyene Macrolide Glycosylation: Engineered Biosynthesis of 19-(O)-Perosaminyl-Amphoteronolide B
    Most polyene macrolide antibiotics are glycosylated with mycosamine (3,6-dideoxy-3-aminomannose). In the amphotericin B producer, Streptomyces nodosus, mycosamine biosynthesis begins with AmphDIII-catalysed conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose. This is converted to GDP-3-keto-6-deoxymannose, which is transaminated to mycosamine by the AmphDII protein. The glycosyltransferase AmphDI transfers mycosamine to amphotericin aglycones (amphoteronolides). The aromatic heptaene perimycin is unusual among polyenes in that the sugar is perosamine (4,6-dideoxy-4-aminomannose), which is synthesised by direct transamination of GDP-4-keto-6-deoxymannose. Here we use the Streptomyces aminophilus perDII perosamine synthase and perDI perosaminyltransferase genes to engineer biosynthesis of perosaminyl-amphoteronolide B in S. nodosus. Efficient production required a hybrid glycosyltransferase containing an N-terminal region of AmphDI and a C-terminal region of PerDI. This work will assist efforts to generate glycorandomised amphoteronolides for drug discovery.
      493Scopus© Citations 36
  • Publication
    Analysis and manipulation of amphotericin biosynthetic genes by means of modified phage KC515 transduction techniques
    Amphotericin B is a medically important antifungal antibiotic that is produced by Streptomyces nodosus. Genetic manipulation of this organism has led to production of the first amphotericin analogues by engineered biosynthesis. Here, these studies were extended by sequencing the chromosomal regions flanking the amphotericin polyketide synthase genes, and by refining the phage KC515 transduction method for disruption and replacement of S. nodosus genes. A hybrid vector was constructed from KC515 DNA and the Escherichia coli plasmid pACYC177. This vector replicated as a plasmid in E. coli and the purified DNA yielded phage plaques on Streptomyces lividans after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transfection of protoplasts. The left flank of the amphotericin gene cluster was found to include amphRI, RII, RIII and RIV genes that are similar to regulatory genes in other polyene biosynthetic gene clusters. One of these regulatory genes, amphRI, was found to have a homologue, amphRVI, located in the right flank at a distance of 127 kbp along the chromosome. However, disruption of amphRVI using the hybrid vector had no effect on the yield of amphotericin obtained from cultures grown on production medium. The hybrid vector was also used for precise deletion of the DNA coding for two modules of the AmphC polyketide synthase protein. Analysis by UV spectrophotometry revealed that the deletion mutant produced a novel pentaene, with reduced antifungal activity but apparently greater water-solubility than amphotericin B. This shows the potential for use of the new vector in engineering of this and other biosynthetic pathways in Streptomyces.
      444Scopus© Citations 55
  • Publication
    Biosynthesis of amphotericin derivatives lacking exocyclic carboxyl groups
    Amphotericin B is a medically important antifungal antibiotic that is also active against human immunodeficiency virus, Leishmania parasites, and prion diseases. The therapeutic use of amphotericin B is restricted by severe side effects that can be moderated by liposomal formulation or structural alteration. Chemical modification has shown that suppression of charge on the exocyclic carboxyl group of amphotericin B substantially reduces toxicity. We report targeted deletions of the amphN cytochrome P450 gene from the chromosome of the amphotericin-producing bacterium Streptomyces nodosus. The mutant strains produced amphotericin analogues in which methyl groups replace the exocyclic carboxyl groups. These compounds retained antifungal activity and had reduced hemolytic activity.
      358Scopus© Citations 102