Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    A Prospective Analysis of the Relationship Between Chronic Diseases and Adiposity in older adults: Findings from the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohorts Study of a Thousand Families 2001-2014
    This study assesses the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and adult chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus type 2 [DM2], cardiovascular diseases [CVD] and cancers), in grandparents in the Lifeways Cross-Generation Cohort Study. BMI was either measured or reported, at baseline or 10-year follow-up, in 1,244 grandparents. Cumulative morbidity data were recorded at baseline, 3 and 10-year follow-up through questionnaires, General Practice note search or both. 42.4% of grandparents were overweight and 32.1% obese. In the multivariate analysis BMI showed a strong linear association with both DM2 (ptrend <0.001) and CVD (ptrend <0.001). There were no significant associations with cancers, but case numbers were small. Results were similar for waist circumference. This prospective study presents novel Irish data and confirms other recent Irish cross-sectional reports on adiposity and adult chronic disease, highlighting the need for effective health promotion interventions in older adults. 
      361
  • Publication
    School sociodemographic characteristics and obesity in schoolchildren: does the obesity definition matter?
    Background: Existing evidence on the role of sociodemographic variables as risk factors for overweight and obesity in school-aged children is inconsistent. Furthermore, findings seem to be influenced by the obesity definition applied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate if school sociodemographic indicators were associated with weight status in Irish primary schoolchildren and whether this association was sensitive to different obesity classification systems. Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 7,542 Irish children (53.9% girls), mean age 10.4 (±1.2SD) years, participating in the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative in the 2010, 2012/2013 or 2015/2016 waves were included. Height, weight and waist circumference were objectively measured. Five definitions of obesity were employed using different approaches for either body mass index (BMI) or abdominal obesity. Associations between overweight and obesity and sociodemographic variables were investigated using adjusted multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results: Children attending disadvantaged schools were more likely to be overweight and obese than their peers attending non-disadvantaged schools, regardless of the obesity classification system used. Associations remained significant for the BMI-based obesity definitions when the sample was stratified by sex and age group, except for boys aged 8-10.5 years. Only boys aged ≥10.5 years in disadvantaged schools had higher odds of abdominal obesity (UK 1990 waist circumference growth charts: OR=1.56, 95%CI=1.09-2.24; waist-to-height ratio: OR=1.78, 95%CI=1.14-2.79) than those in non-disadvantaged schools. No associations were observed for school urbanisation level. Conclusions: School socioeconomic status was a strong determinant of overweight and obesity in Irish schoolchildren, and these associations were age- and sex-dependent. School location was not associated with overweight or obesity. There remains a need to intervene with school-aged children in disadvantaged schools, specifically among those approaching adolescence, to prevent a trajectory of obesity into adult life.
      328Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats
    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences existed in terms of the attitudes and purchase intention. Following regression analysis, consumers' purchase intention towards enriched processed meat was primarily driven by their attitudes towards the product concept. Perceived healthiness of existing products and eating frequency of processed meat were also positively associated with the purchase intention. Other factors such as general food choice motives, socio-demographic characteristics, consumer health and the consumption of functional foods and dietary supplements in general, were not significant predictors of the purchase intention for enriched processed meat.
      468
  • Publication
    Consumer evaluations of processed meat products reformulated to be healthier - A conjoint analysis study
    Recent innovations in processed meats focus on healthier reformulations through reducing negative constituents and/or adding health beneficial ingredients. This study explored the influence of base meat product (ham, sausages, beef burger), salt and/or fat content (reduced or not), healthy ingredients (omega 3, vitamin E, none), and price (average or higher than average) on consumers' purchase intention and quality judgement of processed meats. A survey (n = 481) using conjoint methodology and cluster analysis was conducted. Price and base meat product were most important for consumers' purchase intention, followed by healthy ingredient and salt and/or fat content. In reformulation, consumers had a preference for ham and sausages over beef burgers, and for reduced salt and/or fat over non reduction. In relation to healthy ingredients, omega 3 was preferred over none, and vitamin E was least preferred. Healthier reformulations improved the perceived healthiness of processed meats. Cluster analyses identified three consumer segments with different product preferences.
      256Scopus© Citations 93
  • Publication
    Body mass index and height over three generations: evidence from the Lifeways cross-generational cohort study
    Background: Obesity and its measure of body mass index are strongly determined by parental body size. Debate continues as to whether both parents contribute equally to offspring body mass which is key to understanding the aetiology of the disease. The aim of this study was to use cohort data from three generations of one family to examine the relative maternal and paternal associations with offspring body mass index and how these associations compare with family height to demonstrate evidence of genetic or environmental cross-generational transmission. Methods: 669 of 1082 families were followed up in 2007/8 as part of the Lifeways study, a prospective observational cross-generation linkage cohort. Height and weight were measured in 529 Irish children aged 5 to 7 years and were self-reported by parents and grandparents. All adults provided information on self-rated health, education status, and indicators of income, diet and physical activity. Associations between the weight, height, and body mass index of family members were examined with mixed models and heritability estimates computed using linear regression analysis. Results: Self-rated health was associated with lower BMI for all family members, as was age for children. When these effects were accounted for evidence of familial associations of BMI from one generation to the next was more apparent in the maternal line. Heritability estimates were higher (h2 = 0.40) for mother-offspring pairs compared to father-offspring pairs (h2 = 0.22). In the previous generation, estimates were higher between mothersparents (h2 = 0.54-0.60) but not between fathers-parents (h2 = -0.04-0.17). Correlations between mother and offspring across two generations remained significant when modelled with fixed variables of socioeconomic status, health, and lifestyle. A similar analysis of height showed strong familial associations from maternal and paternal lines across each generation. Conclusions: This is the first family cohort study to report an enduring association between mother and offspring BMI over three generations. The evidence of BMI transmission over three generations through the maternal line in an observational study corroborates the findings of animal studies. A more detailed analysis of geno and phenotypic data over three generations is warranted to understand the nature of this maternal-offspring relationship.
      393Scopus© Citations 89