Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    A comparison of methods for the isolation and separation of extracellular vesicles from protein and lipid particles in human serum
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized vesicles containing nucleic acid and protein cargo that are released from a multitude of cell types and have gained significant interest as potential diagnostic biomarkers. Human serum is a rich source of readily accessible EVs; however, the separation of EVs from serum proteins and non-EV lipid particles represents a considerable challenge. In this study, we compared the most commonly used isolation techniques, either alone or in combination, for the isolation of EVs from 200 µl of human serum and their separation from non-EV protein and lipid particles present in serum. The size and yield of particles isolated by each method was determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis, with the variation in particle size distribution being used to determine the relative impact of lipoproteins and protein aggregates on the isolated EV population. Purification of EVs from soluble protein was determined by calculating the ratio of EV particle count to protein concentration. Finally, lipoprotein particles co-isolated with EVs was determined by Western blot analysis of lipoprotein markers APOB and APOE. Overall, this study reveals that the choice of EV isolation procedure significantly impacts EV yield from human serum, together with the presence of lipoprotein and protein contaminants.
      511Scopus© Citations 434
  • Publication
    A method for isolation of cone photoreceptors from adult zebrafish retinae
    Background: Cone photoreceptors are specialised sensory retinal neurons responsible for photopic vision, colour perception and visual acuity. Retinal degenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases in which the most severe vision loss typically arises from cone photoreceptor dysfunction or degeneration. Establishing a method to purify cone photoreceptors from retinal tissue can accelerate the identification of key molecular determinants that underlie cone photoreceptor development, survival and function. The work herein describes a new method to purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labelled cone photoreceptors from adult retina of Tg(3.2gnat2:EGFP) zebrafish. Results: Methods for dissecting adult zebrafish retinae, cell dissociation, cell sorting, RNA isolation and RNA quality control were optimised. The dissociation protocol, carried out with ~30 retinae from adult zebrafish, yielded approximately 6 × 106 cells. Flow cytometry cell sorting subsequently distinguished 1 × 106 EGFP+ cells and 4 × 106 EGFP− cells. Electropherograms confirmed downstream isolation of high-quality RNA with RNA integrity number (RIN) >7.6 and RNA concentration >5.7 ng/µl obtained from both populations. Reverse Transcriptase-PCR confirmed that the EGFP-positive cell populations express known genetic markers of cone photoreceptors that were not expressed in the EGFP-negative cell population whereas a rod opsin amplicon was only detected in the EGFP-negative retinal cell population. Conclusions: This work describes a valuable adult zebrafish cone photoreceptor isolation methodology enabling future identification of cone photoreceptor-enriched genes, proteins and signalling networks responsible for their development, survival and function. In addition, this advancement facilitates the identification of novel candidate genes for inherited human blindness.
      631Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    Regulator of G-protein signaling protein 18 integrates activating and inhibitory signaling in platelets
    Regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (RGS18) is a GTPase-activating protein for the G-α-q and G-α-i subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins that turns off signaling by G-protein coupled receptors. RGS18 is highly expressed in platelets. In the present study, we show that the 14-3-3γ protein binds to phosphorylated serines 49 and 218 of RGS18. Platelet activation by thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP stimulates the association of 14-3-3 and RGS18, probably by increasing the phosphorylation of serine 49. In contrast, treatment of platelets with prostacyclin and nitric oxide, which trigger inhibitory cyclic nucleotide signaling involving cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I (PKGI), induces the phosphorylation of serine 216 of RGS18 and the detachment of 14-3-3. Serine 216 phosphorylation is able to block 14-3-3 binding to RGS18 even in the presence of thrombin, thromboxane A2, or ADP. 14-3-3-deficient RGS18 is more active compared with 14-3-3-bound RGS18, leading to a more pronounced inhibition of thrombin-induced release of calcium ions from intracellular stores. Therefore, PKA- and PKGI-mediated detachment of 14-3-3 activates RGS18 to block Gq-dependent calcium signaling. These findings indicate cross-talk between platelet activation and inhibition pathways at the level of RGS18 and Gq.
      315Scopus© Citations 53
  • Publication
    Differential localization of A-Raf regulates MST2-mediated Apoptosis during Epithelial Differentiation
    A-Raf belongs to the family of oncogenic Raf kinases that are involved in mitogenic signaling by activating the MEK-ERK pathway. Low kinase activity of A-Raf toward MEK suggested that A-Raf might have alternative functions. We recently identified A-Raf as a potent inhibitor of the proapoptotic mammalian sterile 20-like kinase (MST2) tumor suppressor pathway in several cancer entities including head and neck, colon, and breast. Independent of kinase activity, A-Raf binds to MST2 thereby efficiently inhibiting apoptosis. Here, we show that the interaction of A-Raf with the MST2 pathway is regulated by subcellular compartmentalization. Although in proliferating normal cells and tumor cells A-Raf localizes to the mitochondria, differentiated non-carcinogenic cells of head and neck epithelia, which express A-Raf at the plasma membrane. The constitutive or induced re-localization of A-Raf to the plasma membrane compromises its ability to efficiently sequester and inactivate MST2, thus rendering cells susceptible to apoptosis. Physiologically, A-Raf re-localizes to the plasma membrane upon epithelial differentiation in vivo. This re-distribution is regulated by the scaffold protein kinase suppressor of Ras 2 (KSR2). Downregulation of KSR2 during mammary epithelial cell differentiation or siRNA-mediated knockdown re-localizes A-Raf to the plasma membrane causing the release of MST2. By using the MCF7 cell differentiation system, we could demonstrate that overexpression of A-Raf in MCF7 cells, which induces differentiation. Our findings offer a new paradigm to understand how differential localization of Raf complexes affects diverse signaling functions in normal cells and carcinomas.
      395Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Nonlinear signalling networks and cell-to-cell variability transform external signals into broadly distributed or bimodal responses
    We show theoretically and experimentally a mechanism behind the emergence of wide or bimodal protein distributions in biochemical networks with nonlinear input–output characteristics (the dose–response curve) and variability in protein abundance. Large cell-to-cell variation in the nonlinear dose–response characteristics can be beneficial to facilitate two distinct groups of response levels as opposed to a graded response. Under the circumstances that we quantify mathematically, the two distinct responses can coexist within a cellular population, leading to the emergence of a bimodal protein distribution. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrate the appearance of wide distributions in the hypoxia-inducible factor-mediated response network in HCT116 cells. With help of our theoretical framework, we perform a novel calculation of the magnitude of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in the dose–response obtained experimentally.
      454Scopus© Citations 21