Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Can histone deacetylase inhibitors uncover novel therapeutic agents for inherited retinal dystrophies
    Inherited retinal dystrophies (iRDs) affect 1 in 3000 people worldwide and effective treatment options are not widely available due to the genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Recently, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have gained attention as a potential therapeutic option based on their neuroprotective effects within the retina. However, the benefits of HDACi remains highly controversial, and their downstream mechanism of action are yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Preliminary data from studies conducted has shown that treatment of zebrafish retinal mutant with HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), could rescue visual capacity and retinal morphology. The current study is designed to address the suitability of HDACi as therapeutic options for iRDs using zebrafish models.
      149
  • Publication
    Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibitors for Primary and Metastatic Uveal Melanoma
    Patients diagnosed with metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) have a poor survival prognosis. Unfortunately for this rare disease, there is no known cure and suitable therapeutic options are limited. HDAC6 inhibitors (HDAC6i) are currently in clinical trials for other cancers and show potential beneficial effects against tumor cell survival in vitro and in vivo. In MUM cells, HDAC6i show an anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in preclinical xenograft models. The use of HDAC6 inhibitors as a treatment option for MUM should be explored further. Therefore, this review discusses (1) what is known about HDAC6i in MUM and (2) whether HDAC6 inhibitors offer a potential therapeutic option for MUM.
      103Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Emerging Drug Therapies for Inherited Retinal Dystrophies
    (Springer, 2019-12-29)
    Worldwide, 1 in 2000 people suffer from inherited retinal dystrophies (IRD). Individuals with IRD typically present with progressive vision loss that ultimately results in blindness. Unfortunately, effective treatment options are not widely available due to the genetic and clinical heterogeneity of these diseases. There are multiple gene, cell, and drug-based therapies in various phases of clinical trials for IRD. This mini-review documents current progress made in drug-based clinical trials for treating IRD.
      331Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Uveal Melanoma Cell Line Proliferation Is Inhibited by Ricolinostat, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor
    Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) is characterized by poor patient survival. Unfortunately, current treatment options demonstrate limited benefits. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of ACY-1215, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), to attenuate growth of primary ocular UM cell lines and, in particular, a liver MUM cell line in vitro and in vivo, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. A significant (p = 0.0001) dose-dependent reduction in surviving clones of the primary ocular UM cells, Mel270, was observed upon treatment with increasing doses of ACY-1215. Treatment of OMM2.5 MUM cells with ACY-1215 resulted in a significant (p = 0.0001), dose-dependent reduction in cell survival and proliferation in vitro, and in vivo attenuation of primary OMM2.5 xenografts in zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that ACY-1215 significantly arrested the OMM2.5 cell cycle in S phase (p = 0.0001) following 24 h of treatment, and significant apoptosis was triggered in a time-and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.0001). Additionally, ACY-1215 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in OMM2.5 p-ERK expression levels. Through proteome profiling, the attenuation of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) signaling pathway was linked to the observed anti-cancer effects of ACY-1215. In agreement, pharmacological inhibition of MITF signaling with ML329 significantly reduced OMM2.5 cell survival and viability in vitro (p = 0.0001) and reduced OMM2.5 cells in vivo (p = 0.0006). Our findings provide evidence that ACY-1215 and ML329 are efficacious against growth and survival of OMM2.5 MUM cells.
      106Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    Enhancing Understanding of the Visual Cycle by Applying CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing in Zebrafish
    During the vertebrate visual cycle, all-trans-retinal is exported from photoreceptors to the adjacent RPE or Müller glia wherein 11-cis-retinal is regenerated. The 11-cis chromophore is returned to photoreceptors, forming light-sensitive visual pigments with opsin GPCRs. Dysfunction of this process perturbs phototransduction because functional visual pigment cannot be generated. Mutations in visual cycle genes can result in monogenic inherited forms of blindness. Though key enzymatic processes are well characterized, questions remain as to the physiological role of visual cycle proteins in different retinal cell types, functional domains of these proteins in retinoid biochemistry and in vivo pathogenesis of disease mutations. Significant progress is needed to develop effective and accessible treatments for inherited blindness arising from mutations in visual cycle genes. Here, we review opportunities to apply gene editing technology to two crucial visual cycle components, RPE65 and CRALBP. Expressed exclusively in the human RPE, RPE65 enzymatically converts retinyl esters into 11-cis retinal. CRALBP is an 11-cis-retinal binding protein expressed in human RPE and Muller glia. Loss-of-function mutations in either protein results in autosomal recessive forms of blindness. Modeling these human conditions using RPE65 or CRALBP murine knockout models have enhanced our understanding of their biochemical function, associated disease pathogenesis and development of therapeutics. However, rod-dominated murine retinae provide a challenge to assess cone function. The cone-rich zebrafish model is amenable to cost-effective maintenance of a variety of strains. Interestingly, gene duplication in zebrafish resulted in three Rpe65 and two Cralbp isoforms with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns. Functional investigations of zebrafish Rpe65 and Cralbp were restricted to gene knockdown with morpholino oligonucleotides. However, transient silencing, off-target effects and discrepancies between knockdown and knockout models, highlight a need for more comprehensive alternatives for functional genomics. CRISPR/Cas9 in zebrafish has emerged as a formidable technology enabling targeted gene knockout, knock-in, activation, or silencing to single base-pair resolution. Effective, targeted gene editing by CRISPR/Cas9 in zebrafish enables unprecedented opportunities to create genetic research models. This review will discuss existing knowledge gaps regarding RPE65 and CRALBP. We explore the benefits of CRISPR/Cas9 to establish innovative zebrafish models to enhance knowledge of the visual cycle.
    Scopus© Citations 9  409