Now showing 1 - 10 of 41
  • Publication
    Transportation noise and public health outcomes: biological markers and pathologies
    (Institute of Noise Control Engineering - USA, 2018-08-29) ;
    In 2009 the World Health Organisation recommend that for the prevention of sub-clinical adverse health impacts related to night-time noise, the general population should not be exposed to noise levels greater than 40dB(A). Contemporary scientific studies exploring the relationship between transport noise and health-related outcomes have served to reinforce the veracity of this recommendation. Indeed, a number of recent studies suggest that adverse impacts begin to occur at even lower levels - somewhere in the 30-39 dB(A) range. Within the foregoing context, this paper systematically reviews the contemporary academic literature in an attempt to delineate specific biological markers and pathologies associated with noise-health outcomes as a result of transportation noise exposure. In doing so, we highlight and categorise these markers specifically for a range of emerging health impacts. By highlighting such relationships, the goal is to allows other researchers to easily identify key health-related variables in national and international data sets. By utilising this data in conjunction with noise mapping data it may be possible to determine dose-effect and burden of disease relationships more accurately for a wider range of health issues in specific cities across Europe.
  • Publication
    Audio noise mapping in virtual urban simulations : enhancing public awareness
    (Turkish Acoustical Association, 2007-08) ; ;
    One of the key difficulties with urban environmental noise mapping is disseminating results from noise studies in a manner that is easily understood by the general public. Indeed, it is one of the requirements of the Environmental Noise Directive (END) that information from noise studies is disseminated to the general public so that awareness of environmental noise issues is increased. This paper presents preliminary work undertaken to integrate results from environmental noise studies into a virtual sound environment. The model uses appropriate sound mixing techniques to integrate background sound from prediction software while direct sound is integrated from appropriate sound samples. In the virtual environment sound is output using audio rendering and clustering techniques which take account of the position of the individual in the virtual environment. The model demonstrates the possibility of using virtual urban simulations as a framework for evaluating the environmental and visual impact of major urban developments particularly in terms of the impact on the surrounding urban soundscape. In addition, the model framework may be used as a demonstration method whereby the sensitivity of the urban sound environment to different traffic management scenarios is presented to urban inhabitants.
  • Publication
    Spatial restructuring and commuting efficiency in Dublin
    (Trinity College Dublin. Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, 2004)
  • Publication
    Mapping for sustainability: environmental noise and the city
    In the last decade or so, the term sustainability has become fashionable not only among scientists but also among the general public. While this undoubtedly demonstrates that public awareness of environmental issues is increasing, it is also the case that the meaning of the concept can be elusive for many. As has been highlighted earlier in this volume, the notion of sustainability is something of a contested term quite aside from the idea of environmental sustainability, which is a more specific component of the broader concept
  • Publication
    A critical review of current policy for the assessment of night-time noise in the EU
    (UK Institute of Acoustics, 2011-07) ;
    This paper explores issues surrounding the estimation of population exposure data in accordance with EU Directive 2002/49/EC and, in particular, focuses on the assessment of night-time noise. It has been identified by many authors that no standardised method for estimating population exposure to noise exists. Thus, results from noise exposure studies across Member States cannot be compared reliably or combined. For sleep disturbance assessments, the issue is further compounded by the use of methodologies that are not fully understood. Significant concern exists over the use of the new Lnight indicator, which is measured over eight hours, as sleep disturbance studies to date rarely cover this period and noise indices do not usually include Lnight. Furthermore, assessments are performed using calculations at the position of the most exposed façade, while the impact of using this position, with respect to the bedroom, has not been fully quantified. This paper summarises the practical issues associated with the assessment of night-time noise in accordance with the requirements of EU Directive 2002/49/EC. Possible solutions are suggested including further guidance and the creation of an EU data infrastructure that would significantly improve benchmarking and comparison of future exposure studies under the terms of the Directive.
  • Publication
    Transport and land use planning in contemporary Meath
    (Geography Publications, 2015-12) ;
    This chapter focuses on the development of Meath’s contemporary transport system over the past 20 years. It does so by contextualising transport developments within the broad framework of changes in the national and local planning system over a slightly longer timeframe.
  • Publication
    Exploring the accuracy of smartphone applications for measuring environmental noise
    (International Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE-USA), 2015-08-12) ; ; ;
    This paper reports on experimental tests undertaken to assess the capability of noise monitoring apps on smartphones to be utilised as an alternative low cost solution to traditional noise monitoring using a sound level meter. The methodology consisted of testing more than 100 smartphones in a reverberation room. White noise was utilised to test the ability of smartphones to measure noise at background, 50, 70 and 90 dB(A) and these measurements were compared with true noise levels acquired via a calibrated sound level meter. Tests were conducted on phones using the Android and iOS platforms. For each smartphone, tests were completed separately for three leading noise monitoring apps culminating in more than 1400 tests. The results suggest that apps written for the iOS platform are superior to those running on the Android platform which, in relative terms, performed rather poorly. For one of the iOS noise apps, the test results were within 1 dB(A) of the true noise level indicating the clear potential of the iPhone to be used as a low cost monitoring device in the future. The research has implications for the future use of smartphones as low cost monitoring and assessment devices for environmental noise.
  • Publication
    (Cork University Press, 2011-11) ;
    Communications are an outstanding feature of Ireland's rural landscape. Some roads date from early times, but a network of roads and lanes, much denser than in most of Europe, developed strongly in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to link the diffuse pattern of small single farms, provide access to peat bogs and hill grazing, and serve a population substantially larger than the present. The expansion of roads had profound consequences in pre-industrial Ireland, ending isolation, altering rural settlement patterns and facilitating the erosion of native culture and the process of emigration. During the same period, and encouraged by central Ireland's low relief, canals were constructed, running in a predominantly east-west direction and serving the ports on the eastern seaboard with produce from an expanding rural hinterland. Unable to compete with the later railways, the canals fell into disuse in the early twentieth century, but have experienced a revival in recent years with the development of waterways for leisure pursuits. Although relatively underdeveloped, Ireland generated an impressive rail network in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Like the canals, railways were optimistically perceived as instruments of economic development and were extended into remote rural areas to encourage commercial farm production, trade and tourism; in reality, railways facilitated the importation of foreign goods and emigration. With the arrival of motorised road transport after World War II and upgrading of the roads, the railways appeared uncompetitive and a strategy of closure was implemented. Much reduced, the railway system has left a considerable legacy in the Irish rural landscape, including abandoned stations, bridges and embankments. Thinning of the communications network in the twentieth century, in particular railways and rural roads, was paralleled by the development of air travel and telecommunications and increasing investment in major roadways and by-passes. In the early years of the twenty-first century, rapid economic growth has meant that the development of major roadways and by-passes has assumed even greater importance. The role of the railway as a passenger oriented service has increased also. New technologies associated with mobile telecommunications and new forms of energy generation have become conspicuous in the rural landscape. While these latter impacts are likely to increase in future years, the full extent of the impact of the technological revolution on the rural landscape remains to be seen.
  • Publication
    Examining the efficiency of peak and off-peak travel patterns using excess travel and travel economy measures
    In recent years there has been an increase in the level of attention being paid to the empirical difference between observed travel patterns and those necessitated by the distribution of jobs and housing in urban areas. In the academic literature, this issue has been investigated fairly extensively within the context of the excess commuting and commuting economy frameworks in various city-regions. Within these frameworks, one area that has received considerably less attention is the case of off-peak travel which is used as a proxy for non-work travel. Accordingly, the current research specifically addresses this period using the city-region of Dublin, Ireland as a case study. The approach uses data from an urban traffic simulation model to determine the minimum, maximum and random travel costs for the study area which are compared with observed costs. The results show that non-work travel is associated with more efficient travel behaviour driven by the intermixing of land use arrangements associated with these trip types and the transport network. They also show that there are only slight improvements in the efficiency of off-peak travel over the time horizon but considerable improvement during the peak period as a result of the extent of jobs decentralisation.
  • Publication
    Residential exposure to port noise: a case study of Dublin, Ireland
    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recently acknowledged that contrary to the trend for other environmental stressors, noise exposure is increasing in Europe. While a considerable amount of research has recently been undertaken assessing the extent of noise from road, rail and air transportation in the EU, relatively little research has been conducted internationally assessing the extent of environmental noise within the vicinity of major European shipping ports. Accordingly, this paper reports on research examining the extent of noise exposure for residents within the vicinity of Dublin Port, Ireland using the nation’s largest port terminal as a proxy for port noise. Three gantries were erected without planning permission in 2002 but no enforcement proceedings were brought against the operating company prior to a seven-year enforcement period under planning laws expiring. Thus, operational hours and noise levels remain relatively unregulated. In order to assess the level of exposure in the area, a series of long-term measurements were undertaken at the most exposed façade of local resident’s homes to determine whether the extent of day-time and night-time exposure was above levels recommended by the WHO. The results show that exposure is significant and well-above guideline limits considered detrimental to human health and quality of life. They also suggest that there may be a low-frequency noise problem in the study area.