Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Publication
    Validation of elastic wave measurements of rock fracture compliance using numerical discrete particle simulations
    We test various methods of quantifying the compliance of single and multiple rock fractures from synthetic ultrasonic data. The data are generated with a 2D discrete particle scheme which has previously been shown to treat fractures in agreement with linear-slip theory. Studying single fractures, we find that delays derived from peak amplitudes do not correspond to group delays, as might be expected. This is due to waveform distortion caused by the frequency-dependent transmission across the fracture. Instead the delays correspond to an expression for phase delays, which we derive from linear-slip theory. Phase delays are a unique function of compliance, whereas group delays are non-uniquely related to compliance. We believe that this property of group delays has hindered the wider application of deriving fracture compliances from traveltimes. We further show that transmission coefficients derived from waveform spectra yield more accurate fracture compliances than those obtained from ratios of signal peak amplitudes. We also investigate the compliance of a set of parallel fractures. Fracture compliance can only be determined from transmission coefficients if the fracture spacing is so large that the first arriving pulse is not contaminated by reverberations. In the case of contamination the direct measurement of group or phase delays is not practical. However, we demonstrate that in such cases of strong waveform distortion the coda wave interferometry method is very effective for determining relative fracture compliance. First break delays in the fracture set data are related to those observed in single fracture simulations. This means that fracture set compliance can be estimated from first break data if used together with numerical simulations.
      396Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Tremor-rich shallow dyke formation followed by silent magma flow at Bárðarbunga in Iceland
    The Bárðarbunga eruption in Iceland in 2014 and 2015 produced about 1.6 km3 of lava. Magma propagated away from Bárðarbunga to a distance of 48 km in the subsurface beneath Vatnajökull glacier, emerging a few kilometres beyond the glacier's northern rim. A puzzling observation is the lack of shallow (<3 km deep), high-frequency earthquakes associated Q.1 with shallow dyke formation near the subaerial and subglacial eruptive sites, suggesting that near-surface dyke formation is seismically quiet. However, seismic array observations and seismic full wavefield simulations reveal the presence and nature of shallow, pre-eruptive, long-duration seismic tremor activity. Here we use analyses of seismic data to constrain therelationships between seismicity, tremor, dyke propagation and magma flow during the Bárðarbunga eruption. We show that although tremor is usually associated with magma flow in volcanic settings, pre-eruptive tremor at Bárðarbunga was probably caused by swarms of microseismic events during dyke formation, and hence is directly associated with fracturing of the upper 2-3 km of the crust. Subsequent magma flow in the newly formed shallow dyke was seismically silent, with almost a complete absence of seismicity or tremor. Hence, we suggest that the transition from temporarily isolated, large, deep earthquakes to many smaller, shallower, temporally overlapping earthquakes (< magnitude 2) that appear as continuous tremor announces the arrival of a dyke opening in the shallow crust, forming a pathway for silent magma flow to the Earth's surface. 
      845Scopus© Citations 38