Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Direct and Probabilistic Interrelationships between Half-Cell Potential and Resistivity Test Results for Durability Ranking
    Tests related to durability studies on structures often feature half-cell potential and resistivity data. An approximately linear relationship between half-cell potential testing and resistivity data has been discussed and well-researched. In spite of criticisms related to environmental sensitivity of resistivity tests it remains as a popular choice for investigations into durability of structures. This paper investigates the correlation between half-cell potentials and resistivity tests on reinforced concrete from field data from tests on six bridges. The empirical interrelationships from the six bridges with widely varying environmental exposure conditions and the variation of such interrelationships are observed. Similar investigations are carried out on different elements of bridges. The paper then discusses problems related to the interpretation and practical application of correlations carried out on absolute values and advocates the use of statistical measures obtained from test data. The percentile correlations are observed to be helpful when considering exceedances of different threshold values. A customised use of such data in an empirically correlated probabilistic format with can be useful in durability ranking and infrastructure maintenance management. The studies presented in this paper emphasize the advantages of using probabilistic formats over traditional formats when interpreting or quantitatively establishing field relationships between half-cell potential and resistivity data. The ability of this empirically correlated probabilistic format to support structure-specific thresholds of serviceability limit states is discussed. The need for a shared repository for the improvement of accuracy of such correlations and for the use of such correlations as a surrogate for other structures is emphasized.
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  • Publication
    Hurst exponent footprints from activities on a large structural system
    This paper presents Hurst exponent footprints from pseudo-dynamic measurements of significantly varied activities on a damaged bridge structure during rehabilitation through continuous monitoring. The system is interesting due to associated uncertainty in large-scale structures and significant presence of human intervention arising from fundamentally different processes. Investigations into the variation of computed Hurst exponents on time series of limited lengths are carried out in this regard. The Hurst exponents are compared with respect to specific events during the rehabilitation, as well as with the data collection locations. The variations of local Hurst exponents about the values computed for each activity are presented. The scaling of Hurst exponents for different activities is also investigated; these are representative of the extent of multifractality for each event. The extent of multifractality is assessed along with its source and time dependency.
      367Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Monitoring and repair of an impact damaged prestressed bridge
    This paper details the monitoring and repair of an impact damaged prestressed concrete bridge. The repair was required following an impact from a low-loader carrying an excavator while passing underneath the bridge. The repair was carried out by preloading the bridge in the vicinity of the damage to relieve some prestressing. This preload was removed following the hardening and considerable strength gain of the repair material. The true behaviour of damaged prestressed concrete bridges during repair is difficult to estimate theoretically due to a lack of benchmarking and inadequacy of assumed damage models. A network of strain gauges at locations of interest was thus installed during the entire period of repair. Effects of various activities were qualitatively and quantitatively observed. The interaction and rapid, model-free calibration of damaged and undamaged beams, including identification of damaged gauges, were also probed. This full-scale experiment is expected to be of interest and benefit to the practising engineer and the researcher alike.
      338Scopus© Citations 21
  • Publication
    Potential role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the breast tumour microenvironment: stimulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)
    (Springer-Verlag, 2010-01-20) ; ; ;
    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to specifically migrate to and engraft at tumour sites. Understanding interactions between cancer cells and MSCs has become fundamental to determining whether MSC-tumour interactions should be harnessed for delivery of therapeutic agents or considered a target for intervention. Breast Cancer Cell lines (MDA-MB-231, T47D & SK-Br3) were cultured alone or on a monolayer of MSCs, and retrieved using epithelial specific magnetic beads. Alterations in expression of 90 genes associated with breast tumourigenicity were analysed using low-density array. Expression of markers of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and array results were validated using RQ-PCR. Co-cultured cells were analysed for changes in protein expression, growth pattern and morphology. Gene expression and proliferation assays were also performed on indirect co-cultures. Following direct co-culture with MSCs, breast cancer cells expressed elevated levels of oncogenes (NCOA4, FOS), proto-oncogenes (FYN, JUN), genes associated with invasion (MMP11), angiogenesis (VEGF) and anti-apoptosis (IGF1R, BCL2). However, universal downregulation of genes associated with proliferation was observed (Ki67, MYBL2), and reflected in reduced ATP production in response to MSC-secreted factors. Significant upregulation of EMT specific markers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, Twist and Snail) was also observed following co-culture with MSCs, with a reciprocal downregulation in E-cadherin protein expression. These changes were predominantly cell contact mediated and appeared to be MSC specific. Breast cancer cell morphology and growth pattern also altered in response to MSCs. MSCs may promote breast cancer metastasis through facilitation of EMT.
      753Scopus© Citations 259