Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
  • Publication
    Temperament in preschool children with sickle cell anaemia
    Aims: Few studies have investigated the potential impact of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) on temperament. The aim of the current study was to investigate temperament in preschool children with SCA and to establish the reliability of the Children’s Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ) in this population. Methods: The CBQ, a parent-report measure of temperament was completed by parents of 21 preschool children with SCA and a control group of parents of typically developing children, matched for age, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. Results: A significant difference between groups was identified for the dimension of Negative Affectivity only, with specific differences observed in the Discomfort subdomain. Patients with a greater number of hospital admissions in the previous year were reported to have higher levels of discomfort. Conclusions: Preschool children with SCA are reported to have higher rates of Negative Affectivity, particularly Discomfort. Further research is required to investigate the influence of negative affectivity and discomfort on disease management and quality of life throughout childhood.
      333Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Sensory modulation difficulties and assessment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review
    This systematic review aims to (1) establish how different types of assessment measure sensory modulation difficulties in children with ADHD, and (2) to examine whether sensory modulation difficulties can be separated from ADHD symptomatology. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018091730). PRISMA guidelines were used. Three databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL) were searched using a predetermined search string from 1980 to 2020. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria. Sensory modulation difficulties are more likely to be reported when caregiver-report or behavioural measures are used, relative to physiological methods. Despite the focus to date on difficulties in auditory and tactile processing in this patient population, the reported studies show no evidence for these difficulties being more prevalent than difficulties in other sensory domains. Caregiver reports show evidence for differences in children with sensory modulation difficulties and ADHD, and those with ADHD only. This review reports variability in the prevalence of sensory modulation difficulties in children with ADHD that is dependent on the tools used to measure this domain. Approaches to the assessment of sensory modulation, and the implications for clinical practice, are considered.
      299Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Parent reported sleep problems in preschool children with sickle cell anemia and controls in East London
    Snoring and poor sleep may affect cognition, particularly in young children with chronic conditions. Parents of London preschoolers with sickle cell anemia (SCA; n = 22), matched controls (n = 24), and unselected typically developing (n = 142) preschoolers completed sleep questionnaires. Preschoolers with SCA had significantly more sleep problems when compared to matched controls and the larger population. Snoring occurred at least one to two nights a week for 79% of the SCA group. This is compared with 25% of matched controls and 33% of larger population. Randomized controlled trials to improve sleep in young children with SCA already at-risk for cognitive dysfunction should be considered.
      474Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    Sensory modulation and negative affect in children at familial risk of ADHD
    Background/aims: Sensory modulation difficulties are commonly reported in patients with ADHD, however there has been little focus on the development of these difficulties in young children at a higher risk of later ADHD diagnosis. This study investigated whether children with a familial history of ADHD show greater sensory modulation difficulties. We also explored whether sensory modulation was linked to negative affectivity, which has been highlighted as a potential early marker of ADHD. Methods: Parents of children under 6 years with a family history of ADHD (n = 65) and no family history (n = 122) completed questionnaires on sensory modulation and temperament. Results: Children from families with ADHD were reported to display extreme patterns of hyperresponsiveness and hyporesponsiveness, relative to controls. No differences emerged for the sensory seeking domain. Some children within the high-risk group reported high scores across all three sensory modulation patterns. Regression analysis revealed that hyperresponsiveness predicted higher levels of negative affect. Conclusions/implications: This study is the first to report greater sensory modulation difficulties in children at familial risk of ADHD. Future research should establish whether children with sensory modulation and temperament difficulties in early childhood are more vulnerable to developing ADHD.
      256Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Outcome following multiple subpial transection in Landau-Kleffner syndrome and related regression
    Objective: To determine whether multiple subpial transection in the posterior temporal lobe has an impact on long-term outcome in children who have drug-resistant Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) or other "electrical status epilepticus during sleep" (ESES)-related regression. Given the wide variability in outcomes reported in the literature, a secondary aim was to explore predictors of outcome. Methods: The current study includes a surgery group (n = 14) comprising patients who underwent multiple subpial transection of the posterior temporal lobe and a nonsurgery comparison group (n = 21) comprising patients who underwent presurgical investigations for the procedure, but who did not undergo surgery. Outcomes were assessed utilizing clinical note review as well as direct assessment and questionnaires. Results: The distribution of nonclassical cases was comparable between groups. There were some differences between the surgery and nonsurgery groups at presurgical investigation including laterality of discharges, level of language impairment, and age; therefore, follow-up analyses focused on change over time and predictors of outcome. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in language, nonverbal ability, adaptive behavior, or quality of life at follow-up. There was no difference in the proportion of patients showing improvement or deterioration in language category over time for either group. Continuing seizures and an earlier age of onset were most predictive of poorer quality of life at long-term follow-up (F2,23 = 26.2, p = <0.001, R2 = 0.714). Significance Both surgery and nonsurgery groups had similar proportions of classic LKS and ESES-related regression. Because no significant differences were found in the changes observed from baseline to follow-up between the two groups, it is argued that there is insufficient evidence to suggest that multiple subpial transection provides additional benefits over and above the mixed recovery often seen in LKS and related regressive epilepsies.
      332Scopus© Citations 24
  • Publication
    Visual attention control differences in 12-month-old preterm infants
    There have been few previous attempts to assess the development of early markers of executive function in infants born preterm despite well-established deficits reported for older preterm children that have been closely linked to poorer academic functioning. The present study investigates early attention control development in healthy 12-month-old age-corrected pre-term infants who were born less than 30 weeks and compares their performance to full-term infants. Eye-tracking methodology was used to measure attention control. Preterm Infants spent less time focused on the target and were slower to fixate attention, with lower gestational age associated with poorer target fixation and slower processing speed. There were no significant group differences observed for inhibition of return or interference control. These findings suggest that specific emerging deficits in attention control may be observed using eye tracking methodology in very preterm infants at this early stage of development, despite scores within the average range on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
      253Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Prevalence and risk factors for autism spectrum disorder in epilepsy: a systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Aim: To assess the prevalence and risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in epilepsy, and to better understand the relationship and comorbidity between these disorders. Method: PsychINFO and PubMed were searched for articles published in the past 15 years that examined the prevalence of ASD in individuals with epilepsy. Results: A total of 19 studies were found with a pooled ASD prevalence of 6.3% in epilepsy. When divided by type, the risks of ASD for general epilepsy, infantile spasms, focal seizures, and Dravet syndrome were 4.7%, 19.9%, 41.9%, and 47.4% respectively. Studies with populations under 18 years showed a 13.2 times greater risk of ASD than study populations over 18 years, and samples with most (>50%) individuals with intellectual disability showed a greater risk 4.9 times higher than study populations with a minority of individuals with intellectual disability. The main risk factors for ASD reported in the 19 studies included presence of intellectual disability, sex, age, and symptomatic aetiology of epilepsy. Interpretation: Current research supports a high prevalence of ASD in epilepsy. This study helps to define the clinical profile of patients with epilepsy who are at risk for ASD, which may help clinicians in early screening and diagnosis of ASD in this population. What this paper adds: • Critical evaluation of previous studies examining the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in individuals with epilepsy. • A meta‐analysis of 19 studies showed a pooled ASD prevalence of 6.3% in individuals with epilepsy. • Studies that included a majority of individuals with intellectual disability or younger population age had a higher prevalence of autism. • Risk factors reported in studies included presence of intellectual disability, sex, age, and symptomatic epilepsy origin.
    Scopus© Citations 107  281
  • Publication
    Task utility and norms for the Preschool Executive Task Assessment (PETA)
    Earlier identification of executive deficits in preschool children using an ecological approach would give more scope for intervention. The Preschool Executive Task Assessment (PETA) was developed to resemble an everyday age-appropriate task in order to examine the self-direction and integration of executive functions during a multistep task. It was designed so that performance can be evaluated in a microanalytic way and so individualized feedback and support can be easily communicated. The utility of the PETA was assessed with 166 three-to five-year olds. Results showed improved performance with increasing age and verbal intellectual quotient as well as good task reliability and utility. Evidence for influence of socioeconomic status, gender, and use of self-talk was also observed. Clinical applications and future directions of this novel measure are discussed.
      714Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Executive functioning in the classroom: Primary school teachers’ experiences of neuropsychological issues and reports
    Executive functions are crucial for young students to achieve academic success. Classroom environments can influence executive skill development. Teachers act as key players in the promotion of executive functions by providing students with targeted support and scaffolding. Therefore, it is important to establish teachers’ understanding of executive functions and barriers to supporting executive dysfunction. Focus groups with primary school teachers (N = 10) highlighted the importance of promoting students’ executive functions. Knowledge gaps related to neuropsychological terminology were identified. Barriers emerged for the successful implementation of evidence-based interventions, which are compounded by wider systemic issues. Implications for early intervention and for the translation of neuropsychological evidence into the classroom are discussed.
    Scopus© Citations 7  399
  • Publication
    An exploration of sleep and family factors in young children at familial risk for ADHD
    Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine relations between sleep problems and family factors and early markers of ADHD in young children with and without a familial risk for ADHD. Methods: Differences in sleep behavior and family functioning in children under 6 years with (n = 72) and without (n = 139) a familial risk for ADHD were investigated. The influence of family and sleep factors on the development of early temperament markers of ADHD (effortful control and negative affect) was explored. Parents/caregivers completed questionnaires on family functioning, child sleep behavior, and general regulatory behaviors. Results: A significant difference was observed between high-risk and low-risk groups for family functioning in the infant/toddler (<3 years) and preschool (>3 years) cohorts. Parents of infants/toddlers in the high-risk group reported poorer infant sleep. However, there were no sleep differences reported for the preschool cohort. Family functioning was found to predict effortful control, while sleep quality predicted negative affect. Conclusion: The results of this study highlight potential family and sleep issues for young children with a familial history of ADHD and the potential influence of these factors on early temperament markers of ADHD. Future research should explore these relations further in order to better establish whether early sleep and family interventions could mitigate later ADHD symptomatology.
    Scopus© Citations 3  495