Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Publication
    Optimisation of a metabotype approach to deliver targeted dietary advice
    Background: Targeted nutrition is defined as dietary advice tailored at a group level. Groups known as metabotypes can be identified based on individual metabolic profiles. Metabotypes have been associated with differential responses to diet, which support their use to deliver dietary advice. We aimed to optimise a metabotype approach to deliver targeted dietary advice by encompassing more specific recommendations on nutrient and food intakes and dietary behaviours. Methods: Participants (n = 207) were classified into three metabotypes based on four biomarkers (triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and glucose) and using a k-means cluster model. Participants in metabotype-1 had the highest average HDL-cholesterol, in metabotype-2 the lowest triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, and in metabotype-3 the highest triacylglycerol and total cholesterol. For each participant, dietary advice was assigned using decision trees for both metabotype (group level) and personalised (individual level) approaches. Agreement between methods was compared at the message level and the metabotype approach was optimised to incorporate messages exclusively assigned by the personalised approach and current dietary guidelines. The optimised metabotype approach was subsequently compared with individualised advice manually compiled. Results: The metabotype approach comprised advice for improving the intake of saturated fat (69% of participants), fibre (66%) and salt (18%), while the personalised approach assigned advice for improving the intake of folate (63%), fibre (63%), saturated fat (61%), calcium (34%), monounsaturated fat (24%) and salt (14%). Following the optimisation of the metabotype approach, the most frequent messages assigned to address intake of key nutrients were to increase the intake of fruit and vegetables, beans and pulses, dark green vegetables, and oily fish, to limit processed meats and high-fat food products and to choose fibre-rich carbohydrates, low-fat dairy and lean meats (60-69%). An average agreement of 82.8% between metabotype and manual approaches was revealed, with excellent agreements in metabotype-1 (94.4%) and metabotype-3 (92.3%). Conclusions: The optimised metabotype approach proved capable of delivering targeted dietary advice for healthy adults, being highly comparable with individualised advice. The next step is to ascertain whether the optimised metabotype approach is effective in changing diet quality.
      119Scopus© Citations 19
  • Publication
    Identification of a plasma signature of psychotic disorder in children and adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort
    The identification of an early biomarker of psychotic disorder is important as early treatment is associated with improved patient outcome. Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches in combination with multivariate statistical analysis were applied to identify plasma alterations in children (age 11) (38 cases vs 67 controls) and adolescents (age 18) (36 cases vs 117 controls) preceeding or coincident with the development of psychotic disorder (PD) at age 18 in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Overall, 179 lipids were identified at age 11, with 32 found to be significantly altered between the control and PD groups. Following correction for multiple comparisons, 8 of these lipids remained significant (lysophosphatidlycholines (LPCs) LPC(18:1), LPC(18:2), LPC(20:3); phosphatidlycholines (PCs) PC(32:2; PC(34:2), PC(36:4), PC(0-34-3) and sphingomyelin (SM) SM(d18:1/24:0)), all of which were elevated in the PD group. At age 18, 23 lipids were significantly different between the control and PD groups, although none remained significant following correction for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, the findings indicate that the lipidome is altered in the blood during childhood, long before the development of psychotic disorder. LPCs in particular are elevated in those who develop PD, indicating inflammatory abnormalities and altered phospholipid metabolism. These findings were not found at age 18, suggesting there may be ongoing alterations in the pathophysiological processes from prodrome to onset of PD.
      645Scopus© Citations 36
  • Publication
    Nutrition and physical activity countermeasures for sarcopenia: Time to get personal?
    Population ageing is a global phenomenon. It is regarded as a major cause of upward pressure on healthcare costs. One of the greatest threats to healthy, independent ageing is sarcopenia, the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age. Physical inactivity and poor nutrition represent crucial and imminently modifiable risk factors for sarcopenia. Resistance exercise training is the most effective method for improving muscle mass and function in older adults. Evidence indicates that resistance training-induced improvements in muscle mass, strength and function may be further augmented by certain nutrients and nutritional strategies. Ageing is associated with a reduction in the anabolic sensitivity of skeletal muscle to dietary protein ingestion and accumulating evidence indicates that older adults require protein intakes 50%–100% higher than the recommended daily allowance (0.8 g/kg/day) to preserve muscle mass and function. Protein quality, the pattern of protein intake over the day (i.e. per-meal protein), specific amino acids (i.e. leucine) and other nutrients (i.e. vitamin D, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) are also key considerations. From the personalised nutrition perspective, it is now acknowledged that individual responses to nutrition/exercise interventions are highly variable, despite equivalent compliance, thus highlighting the inadequacy of a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach. The application of personalised medicine to sarcopenia represents an exciting emerging field of research with the potential to dramatically improve patient outcomes. This approach makes use of recent developments in ‘omics’ technologies and aims to identify the factors (i.e. genes, key biomarkers, medical history, environment, lifestyle) that determine whether an individual is a higher or a lower responder to a particular intervention. This narrative review discusses current evidence regarding nutrition and exercise countermeasures for sarcopenia, with a specific emphasis on recent developments in personalised approaches.
    Scopus© Citations 13  347
  • Publication
    Clustering high‐dimensional mixed data to uncover sub‐phenotypes: joint analysis of phenotypic and genotypic data
    The LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study, like many others, recorded high-dimensional continuous phenotypic data and categorical genotypic data. LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX focuses on the need to account for both phenotypic and genetic factors when studying the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a complex disorder that can lead to higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interest lies in clustering the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX participants into homogeneous groups or sub-phenotypes, by jointly considering their phenotypic and genotypic data, and in determining which variables are discriminatory. A novel latent variable model that elegantly accommodates high dimensional, mixed data is developed to cluster LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX participants using a Bayesian finite mixture model. A computationally efficient variable selection algorithm is incorporated, estimation is via a Gibbs sampling algorithm and an approximate BIC-MCMC criterion is developed to select the optimal model. Two clusters or sub-phenotypes ('healthy' and 'at risk') are uncovered. A small subset of variables is deemed discriminatory, which notably includes phenotypic and genotypic variables, highlighting the need to jointly consider both factors. Further, 7 years after the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX data were collected, participants underwent further analysis to diagnose presence or absence of the MetS. The two uncovered sub-phenotypes strongly correspond to the 7-year follow-up disease classification, highlighting the role of phenotypic and genotypic factors in the MetS and emphasising the potential utility of the clustering approach in early screening. Additionally, the ability of the proposed approach to define the uncertainty in sub-phenotype membership at the participant level is synonymous with the concepts of precision medicine and nutrition.
      473Scopus© Citations 15
  • Publication
    Exploring the Links between Diet and Health in an Irish Cohort: A Lipidomic Approach
    Epidemiology and clinical studies provide clear evidence of the complex links between diet and health. To understand these links, reliable dietary assessment methods are pivotal. Biomarkers have emerged as more objective measures of intake compared with traditional dietary assessment methods. However, there are only a limited number of putative biomarkers of intake successfully identified and validated. The use of biomarkers that reflect food intake to examine diet related diseases represents the next step in biomarker research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (1) identify and confirm biomarkers associated with dietary fat intake and (2) examine the relationship between those biomarkers with health parameters. Heatmap analysis identified a panel of 22 lipid biomarkers associated with total dietary fat intake in the Metabolic Challenge (MECHE) Study. Confirmation of four of these biomarkers demonstrated responsiveness to different levels of fat intake in a separate intervention study (NutriTech study). Linear regression identified a significant relationship between the panel of dietary fat biomarkers and HOMA-IR, with three lipid biomarkers (C16, PCaaC36:2, and PCae36:4) demonstrating significant associations. Identifying such links allows us to explore the relationship between diet and health to determine whether these biomarkers can be modulated through diet to improve health outcomes.
      809Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Uncovering Factors Related to Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function
    Aim: The incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly on a global scale. Beta-cell dysfunction contributes to the overall pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, factors contributing to beta-cell function are not clear. The aims of this study were (i) to identify factors related to pancreatic beta-cell function and (ii) to perform mechanistic studies in vitro. Methods: Three specific measures of beta-cell function were assessed for 110 participants who completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of the Metabolic Challenge Study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed as potential modulators of beta-cell function. Subsequent in vitro experiments were performed using the BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta-cell line. Validation of findings were performed in a second human cohort. Results: Waist-to-hip ratio was the strongest anthropometric modulator of beta-cell function, with beta-coefficients of -0.33 (p = 0.001) and -0.30 (p = 0.002) for beta-cell function/homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and disposition index respectively. Additionally, the resistin-to-adiponectin ratio (RA index) emerged as being strongly associated with beta-cell function, with beta-coefficients of -0.24 (p = 0.038) and -0.25 (p = 0.028) for beta-cell function/HOMA-IR, and disposition index respectively. Similar results were obtained using a third measure for beta-cell function. In vitro experiments revealed that the RA index was a potent regulator of acute insulin secretion where a high RA index (20ng ml-1 resistin, 5nmol l-1 g-adiponectin) significantly decreased insulin secretion whereas a low RA index (10ng ml-1 resistin, 10nmol l-1 g-adiponectin) significantly increased insulin secretion. The RA index was successfully validated in a second human cohort with beta-coefficients of -0.40 (p = 0.006) and -0.38 (p = 0.008) for beta-cell function/ HOMA-IR, and disposition index respectively. Conclusions: Waist-to-hip ratio and RA index were identified as significant modulators of beta-cell function. The ability of the RA index to modulate insulin secretion was confirmed in mechanistic studies. Future work should identify strategies to alter the RA index.
      426Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Sexual dimorphism, age, and fat mass are key phenotypic drivers of proteomic signatures
    Validated protein biomarkers are needed for assessing health trajectories, predicting and subclassifying disease, and optimizing diagnostic and therapeutic clinical decision-making. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision of single or combinations of protein biomarkers may be altered by differences in physiological states limiting the ability to translate research results to clinically useful diagnostic tests. Aptamer based affinity assays were used to test whether low abundant serum proteins differed based on age, sex, and fat mass in a healthy population of 94 males and 102 females from the MECHE cohort. The findings were replicated in 217 healthy male and 377 healthy female participants in the DiOGenes consortium. Of the 1129 proteins in the panel, 141, 51, and 112 proteins (adjusted p < 0.1) were identified in the MECHE cohort and significantly replicated in DiOGenes for sexual dimorphism, age, and fat mass, respectively. Pathway analysis classified a subset of proteins from the 3 phenotypes to the complement and coagulation cascades pathways and to immune and coagulation processes. These results demonstrated that specific proteins were statistically associated with dichotomous (male vs female) and continuous phenotypes (age, fat mass), which may influence the identification and use of biomarkers of clinical utility for health diagnosis and therapeutic strategies.
      432Scopus© Citations 14