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  • Publication
    Deep Evolution of Feature Representations for Handwritten Digit Recognition
    A training protocol for learning deep neural networks, called greedy layer-wise training, is applied to the evolution of a hierarchical, feed-forward Genetic Programming based system for feature construction and object recognition. Results on a popular handwritten digit recognition benchmark clearly demonstrate that two layers of feature transformations improves generalisation compared to a single layer. In addition, we show that the proposed system outperforms several standard Genetic Programming systems, which are based on hand-designed features, and use different program representations and fitness functions.
      327Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Neutrality in evolutionary algorithms... what do we know?
    Over the last years, the effects of neutrality have attracted the attention of many researchers in the Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) community. A mutation from one gene to another is considered as neutral if this modification does not affect the phenotype. This article provides a general overview on the work carried out on neutrality in EAs. Using as a framework the origin of neutrality and its study in different paradigms of EAs (e.g., Genetic Algorithms, Genetic Programming), we discuss the most significant works and findings on this topic. This work points towards open issues, which the community needs to address.
      614Scopus© Citations 42