Now showing 1 - 10 of 40
  • Publication
    Direct and Probabilistic Interrelationships between Half-Cell Potential and Resistivity Test Results for Durability Ranking
    Tests related to durability studies on structures often feature half-cell potential and resistivity data. An approximately linear relationship between half-cell potential testing and resistivity data has been discussed and well-researched. In spite of criticisms related to environmental sensitivity of resistivity tests it remains as a popular choice for investigations into durability of structures. This paper investigates the correlation between half-cell potentials and resistivity tests on reinforced concrete from field data from tests on six bridges. The empirical interrelationships from the six bridges with widely varying environmental exposure conditions and the variation of such interrelationships are observed. Similar investigations are carried out on different elements of bridges. The paper then discusses problems related to the interpretation and practical application of correlations carried out on absolute values and advocates the use of statistical measures obtained from test data. The percentile correlations are observed to be helpful when considering exceedances of different threshold values. A customised use of such data in an empirically correlated probabilistic format with can be useful in durability ranking and infrastructure maintenance management. The studies presented in this paper emphasize the advantages of using probabilistic formats over traditional formats when interpreting or quantitatively establishing field relationships between half-cell potential and resistivity data. The ability of this empirically correlated probabilistic format to support structure-specific thresholds of serviceability limit states is discussed. The need for a shared repository for the improvement of accuracy of such correlations and for the use of such correlations as a surrogate for other structures is emphasized.
      348
  • Publication
    Nondetection, false alarm, and calibration insensitivity in kurtosis- and pseudofractal-based singularity detection
    This work isolates cases of nondetection, false alarm, and insensitivity for a general class of problems dealing with the detection and characterization of existence, location, and extent of singularities embedded in signals or in their derivatives when employing kurtosis- and pseudofractal-based methods for the detection and characterization process. The nondetection, false alarm, and insensitivity for these methods are illustrated on an example problem of damage identification and calibration in beams where the singularity to be identified lies in the derivative of the measured signal. The findings are general, not constrained to linear systems, and are potentially applicable to a wide range of fields including engineering system identification, fault detection, health monitoring of mechanical and civil structures, sensor failure, aerospace engineering, and biomedical engineering.
      309Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Damage detection and calibration from beam–moving oscillator interaction employing surface roughness
    The possibility of employing bridge deck surface roughness for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) under operational conditions is proposed in this paper. A bilinear breathing crack in a damaged Euler-Bernoulli beam traversed by a moving oscillator is considered in this regard. The Road Surface Roughness (RSR) of the beam is classified as per ISO 8606:1995(E). The interaction of the moving oscillator with surface roughness is exploited to define simple, consistent, easy to implement and robust statistical descriptors to detect and calibrate the existence, the location and the extent of damage. The effects of vehicle speed and variable RSR profiles for such detection are investigated and preferable conditions for detection are identified. The proposed method is also suitable for experimental analysis where a theoretical model is not available or is not credibly ascertained.
      379Scopus© Citations 37
  • Publication
    Metamodel-based metaheuristics in optimal responsive adaptation and recovery of traffic networks
    Different emerging threats highlighted the relevance of recovery and adaptation modelling in the functioning of societal systems. However, as modelling of systems becomes more complex, its effort increases challenging the practicality of the engineering analyses required for efficient recovery and adaptation. In the present work, metamodels are researched as a tool to enable these analyses in traffic networks. One of the main advantages of metamodeling is their synergy with the short decision times required in recovery and adaptation. A sequential global metamodeling technique is proposed and applied to three macroscopic day-to-day user-equilibrium models. Two reference contexts of application are researched: optimal recovery to a perturbation (with response times reduced by 98% with loss of accuracy lower than 1%) and adaptation under uncertainty with perturbation-dependent optimality. Results show that metamodeling-based metaheuristics enable fast resource-intensive engineering analyses of traffic recovery and adaptation, which may change the paradigm of decision-making in this field
      12Scopus© Citations 5
  • Publication
    Application of value of information theory in adaptive metamodeling for reliability assessment
    The present paper discusses the application principles of value of information theory in adaptive metamodeling for reliability analysis. Metamodeling for reliability purposes has become particularly relevant in recent years. The usage of metamodels allows surrogating the, costly to evaluate, performance functions of engineering structures. Adaptive Kriging procedures are examples of the successful application of metamodeling in reliability analysis. Efficient adaptive Kriging involves the usage of some notion of improvement in what ultimately is an unsupervised decision making scheme that selects points to enrich the model. Therefore, the decision to select a point to enrich the experimental design should consider the utility of each candidate in the expectation of improvement of the metamodeling accuracy. Within this context, a comprehensive discussion on the application of value of information for reliability metamodeling is presented. Since the candidate points and surrogate are jointly built in a virtually costless model, it is possible to know the virtual outcome of the enrichment decisions. In many circumstances, points in the experimental design may provide redundant information. Furthermore, a priori knowledge on the performance function may be applied to weight the expected outcome of exploration and exploitation. Value of information considerations adds value to reliability metamodeling that uses adaptive methods, and is of interest for efficient design and optimization of complex structures, such as bridge structures.
      21Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    The Effect of Traffic Growth on Characteristic Bridge Load Effects
    Freight traffic in the European Union is increasing with time. This paper describes a method for considering this growth when assessing traffic loading on bridges and examines the effect of this growth on characteristic load effects. The Eurocode Load Model 1 is used for the design of new bridges. As this model can be overly conservative for the assessment of existing bridges, a scaled down version can be used by applying a–factors to the load model. This is usually done by modelling the traffic loading on the bridge using site-specific weigh-in-motion data and calculating the a–factors in accordance with the results. In this paper, weigh-in-motion data from a site in the Netherlands is used to demonstrate the proposed approach. 40-year simulations of traffic loading are performed on various bridges. The simulations consider year-on-year growth in both the volume and weight of trucks. Time-varying generalized extreme value distributions are then fitted to the simulated data and used to calculate the characteristic load effects. The results are then compared with the load effects generated by Load Model 1 in order to calculate the associated factors. It is found that an increase in truck weights has the most significant influence on the factors but that increased flow also has a significant effect.
      322Scopus© Citations 27
  • Publication
    ROC dependent event isolation method for image processing based assessment of corroded harbour structures
    The localisation and calibration of damage in a structure are often difficult, time consuming, subjective and error prone. The importance of a simple, fast and relatively inexpensive non-destructive technique (NDT) with reliable measurements is thus greatly felt. The usefulness and the efficiency of any such technique are often affected by environmental conditions. The definition of damage and the subsequent interpretation of the possible consequences due to the damage introduce subjectivity into an NDT technique and affect its performance. It is of great importance in terms of practical application to find out the efficiency of an NDT technique in a probabilistic way for various damage definitions and environmental conditions through the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Such variations of performance of an NDT tool can be predicted through simulation processes, and the test conditions conducive to good detections can be isolated and ranked according to their relative efficiency. This paper considers a camera based image analysis technique to identify, quantify and classify damage in structures at various levels of scale. The general method has been applied to identify the affected areas on aluminium due to pitting corrosion. The method depends on the optical contrast of the corroded region with respect to its surroundings, performs intelligent edge detection through image processing techniques and computes each affected and closed region to predict the total area of the affected part, together with its spatial distribution on a two-dimensional plane. The effects of various environmental factors on the quality of such images are simulated from an original photograph. The objectivity and the amount of available information, quantification and localisation and the extent of pitting corrosion are observed, together with the various constructed ROC curves. The method provides the engineer, the owner of the structure and the end-user of the NDT technique with a tool to assess the performance of the structure in an as-built condition and decide on the appropriateness of a certain NDT, under a given environmental condition and a certain definition of damage. Moreover, it allows the findings of the NDT results to be introduced in the decision chain and risk analysis.
      363Scopus© Citations 37
  • Publication
    Reliability analysis using a multi-metamodel complement-basis approach
    The present work discusses an innovative approach to metamodeling in reliability that uses a field-transversal rationale. Adaptive metamodeling in reliability is characterized by its large spectra of models and techniques with different assumptions. As a result, the reliability engineer is frequently faced with the highly challenging task of selecting an appropriate model or technique with limited a priori knowledge about the performance function that defines the problem of reliability. To tackle this challenge, a complement-basis is proposed for adaptive metamodeling. It consists in using a batch of multiple metamodels or techniques that, accordingly to an activation criterion, are selected to solve the reliability analysis. This activation is set to depend on the model synergy with the problem in-hand. In the present work the leave-one-out loss is applied as evaluator of compatibility, and results show that the absolute loss successfully performs as an activator. A metamodel-independent learning approach and stopping criterion are implemented to study the proposed approach in five representative examples. Results show that the complement-basis allows to increase the efficiency of the reliability analysis through the selection of adequate metamodels, which is indicative of the untapped potential that further transversal research may add to metamodeling in reliability analysis.
    Scopus© Citations 18  11
  • Publication
    TRUSS, a European Innovative Training Network Dealing with the Challenges of an Aging Infrastructure Network
    Inspections and maintenance of infrastructure are expensive. In some cases, overdue or insufficient maintenance/monitoring can lead to an unacceptable risk of collapse and to a tragic failure as the Morandi bridge in Genoa, Italy, on 14th August 2018. An accurate assessment of the safety of a structure is a difficult task due to uncertainties associated with the aging and response of the structure, with the operational and environmental loads, and with their interaction. During the period from 2015 to 2019, the project TRUSS (Training in Reducing Uncertainty in Structural Safety) ITN (Innovative Training Network), funded by the EU H2020 Marie Curie-Skłodowska Action (MSCA) programme, has worked towards improving the structural assessment of buildings, energy, marine, and transport infrastructure. Fourteen Early Stage Researchers (ESRs) have been recruited to carry out related research on new materials, testing methods, improved and more efficient modelling methods and management strategies, and sensor and algorithm development for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) purposes. This research has been enhanced by an advanced program of scientific and professional training delivered via a collaboration between 6 Universities, 1 research institute and 11 companies from 5 European countries. The high proportion of companies participating in TRUSS ITN has ensured significant industry expertise and has introduced a diverse range of perspectives to the consortium on the activities necessary to do business in the structural safety sector.
      248
  • Publication
    Horizontal loading effects of fresh concrete on precast arches
    This paper investigates the horizontal effect of fresh concrete on precast arches. A number of different models of horizontal pressure of fresh concrete are considered in this regard. The effects of fresh concrete on a precast arch are represented as a ratio of maximum normal stress from horizontal action of fresh concrete to the normal stress induced by the self-weight of the precast concrete arch. A parameter study on a number of geometric and operational variables was carried out. The implications of this horizontal loading from fresh concrete are discussed within the context of the potential financial effects.
      467