- Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan

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# Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan

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Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan

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Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan

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- PublicationAn optical encryption scheme that uses polarization of coherent light(Optical Society of America, 2005-10-16)
; ; ; We demonstrate an optical system that encodes two dimensional data as different polarization states. The encrypted image is recorded using a digital holographic setup and the decryption is done numerically.335 - PublicationGeneralized in-line digital holographic technique based on intensity measurements at two different planes(Optical Society of America, 2008-02-10)
; ; ; In-line digital holography based on two-intensity measurements [Zhang et al. Opt. Lett. 29, 1787 (2004)], is modiﬁed by introducing a π shifting in the reference phase. Such an improvement avoids the assumption that the object beam must be much weaker than the reference beam in strength and results in a simplified experimental implementation. Computer simulations and optical experiments are carried out to validate the method, which we refer to as position-phase-shifting digital holography.1104Scopus© Citations 60 - PublicationSpeckle interferometric system for measuring ocular microtremor(Optical Society of America, 2008-10-19)
; ; ; ; ; ; A compact optical system has been developed capable of measuring minute movements of the eye. Eye movement is simulated through the application an electrical signal to a piezoelectric material which acts as the eye’s surface. Using this device, both the amplitude and frequency components of this movement can be accurately measured.365 - PublicationGeneralized Yamaguchi correlation factor for coherent quadratic phase speckle metrology systems with an aperture(Optical Society of America, 2006-12-01)
; ; ; ; ; In speckle-based metrology systems, a finite range of possible motion or deformation can be measured. When coherent imaging systems with a single limiting aperture are used in speckle metrology, the observed decorrelation effects that ultimately define this range are described by the well-known Yamaguchi correlation factor. We extend this result to all coherent quadratic phase paraxial optical systems with a single aperture and provide experimental results to support our theoretical conclusions.489Scopus© Citations 15 - PublicationParaxial speckle-based metrology systems with an aperture(Optical Society of America, 2006-11-01)
; ; ; ; ; Digital speckle photography can be used in the analysis of surface motion in combination with an optical linear canonical transform (LCT). Previously [D. P. Kelly et al. Appl. Opt. 44, 2720 (2005)] it has been shown that optical fractional Fourier transforms (OFRTs) can be used to vary the range and sensitivity of speckle-based metrology systems, allowing the measurement of both the magnitude and direction of tilting (rotation) and translation motion simultaneously, provided that the motion is captured in two separate OFRT domains. This requires two bulk optical systems. We extend the OFRT analysis to more general LCT systems with a single limiting aperture. The effect of a limiting aperture in LCT systems is examined in more detail by deriving a generalized Yamaguchi correlation factor. We demonstrate the benefits of using an LCT approach to metrology design. Using this technique, we show that by varying the curvature of the illuminating field, we can effectively change the output domain. From a practical perspective this means that estimation of the motion of a target can be achieved by using one bulk optical system and different illuminating conditions. Experimental results are provided to support our theoretical analysis.481Scopus© Citations 24 - PublicationNoninterferometric phase retrieval using a fractional Fourier system(Optical Society of America, 2008-01-01)
; ; ; The signal extraction method based on intensity measurements in two close fractional Fourier domains is examined by using the phase space formalism. The fractional order separation has a lower bound and an upper bound that depend on the signal at hand and the noise in the optical system used for measurement. On the basis of a theoretical analysis, it is shown that for a given optical system a judicious choice of fractional order separation requires some a priori knowledge of the signal bandwidth. We also present some experimental results in support of the analysis.473Scopus© Citations 27 - PublicationStatistical investigation of the double random phase encoding technique(Optical Society of America, 2009-08-24)
; ; ; ; The amplitude-encoding case of the double random phase encoding technique is examined by deﬁning a cost function as a metric to compare an attempted decryption against the corresponding original input image. For the case when a cipher–text pair has been obtained and the correct decryption key is unknown, an iterative attack technique can be employed to ascertain the key. During such an attack the noise in the output ﬁeld for an attempted decryption can be used as a measure of a possible decryption key’s correctness. For relatively small systems, i.e., systems involving fewer than 5x5 pixels, the output decryption of every possible key can be examined to evaluate the distribution of the keys in key space in relation to their relative performance when carrying out decryption. However, in order to do this for large systems, checking every single key is currently impractical. One metric used to quantify the correctness of a decryption key is the normalized root mean squared (NRMS) error. The NRMS is a measure of the cumulative intensity difference between the input and decrypted images. We identify a core term in the NRMS, which we refer to as the difference parameter, d. Expressions for the expected value (or mean) and variance of d are derived in terms of the mean and variance of the output ﬁeld noise, which is shown to be circular Gaussian. These expressions assume a large sample set (number of pixels and keys). We show that as we increase the number of samples used, the decryption error obeys the statistically predicted characteristic values. Finally, we corroborate previously reported simulations in the literature by using the statistically derived expressions.1024Scopus© Citations 18 - PublicationKey-space analysis of double random phase encryption technique(Optical Society of America, 2007-09-10)
; ; ; We perform a numerical analysis on the double random phase encryption/decryption technique. The key-space of an encryption technique is the set of possible keys that can be used to encode data using that technique. In the case of a strong encryption scheme, many keys must be tried in any brute-force attack on that technique. Traditionally, designers of optical image encryption systems demonstrate only how a small number of arbitrary keys cannot decrypt a chosen encrypted image in their system. However, this type of demonstration does not discuss the properties of the key-space nor refute the feasibility of an efficient brute-force attack. To clarify these issues we present a key-space analysis of the technique. For a range of problem instances we plot the distribution of decryption errors in the key-space indicating the lack of feasibility of a simple brute-force attack.1608Scopus© Citations 86 - PublicationControlling speckle using lenses and free space(Optical Society of America, 2007-12-01)
; ; ; The correlation properties of speckle ﬁelds are studied for general paraxial systems. The previous studies on lateral and longitudinal speckle size for the case of free-space propagation (Fresnel transform) are generalized to the case of the linear canonical transform. These results have implications for the control of speckle size, through appropriate design of optical systems, with particular relevance for speckle interferometry.422Scopus© Citations 17 - PublicationCryptanalysis of optical security systems with significant output images(Optical Society of America, 2007-08-01)
; ; ; The security of the encryption and verification techniques with significant output images is examined by a known-plaintext attack. We introduce an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm based on multiple intensity measurements to heuristically estimate the phase key in the Fourier domain by several plaintext-cyphertext pairs. We obtain correlation output images with very low error by correlating the estimated key with corresponding random phase masks. Our studies show that the convergence behavior of this algorithm sensitively depends on the starting point. We also demonstrate that this algorithm can be used to attack the double random phase encoding technique.543Scopus© Citations 87