Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    The relationship between impact condition and velocity on brain tissue response
    (International Society of Biomechanics, 2011) ; ;
    Injury reconstruction is a well accepted method for investigating the relationship between the event causing brain injury and the resulting trauma to neural tissue. Understanding the effect of the impact characteristics and velocity on the brain deformations is important when interpreting brain stress and strain values obtained from reconstructions. A finite element model (UCDBTM) was used to evaluate brain tissue response under varying impact conditions using an unhelmeted Hybrid III headform. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between impact conditions and corresponding brain tissue response variables. The results revealed that the dynamic response curve created by different impacting conditions significantly influenced the maximum principal strain and Von Mises stress of brain tissue, providing valuable insight in the limitations of accident reconstruction from descriptive data.
  • Publication
    A Comparison of the Head Dynamic Response and Brain Tissue Deformation from Impacts Resulting in Concussion, Concussion with Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms, and Subdural Hematoma
    (American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 2015-08) ; ; ; ;
    Objective: Concussions typically resolve within a few days however in a few cases the symptoms last for a month or longer and are termed persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) with more serious brain trauma resulting in bleeds, such as subdural hematoma (SDH). Dynamic response and brain tissue deformation characteristics may provide a means of distinguishing between these three types of injuries. Methods: Reconstruction cases were recruited from sports medicine clinics and hospitals along with medical reports, video footage, and medical imaging. All subjects received a direct blow to the head resulting in head trauma symptoms, those that resolved in 9 days were termed concussions, those with symptoms longer than 18 months were PPCS and those presenting with subdural hematoma (SDH). An anthropometric dummy headform was dropped onto various impact surfaces using a monorail drop rig. Headform dynamic response data was collected and used as input into the University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model to obtain maximum principal strain and von Mises stress. Results: Both linear and rotational acceleration of the head increased in magnitude with an increase in injury severity (from concussion, to PPCS, and SDH). The PPCS group had peak resultant rotational accelerations similar to SDH and significantly higher than concussions. There were no significant differences for peak resultant linear accelerations between the two concussion groups however they were both significantly lower than the SDH group. Brain tissue deformation measures however, did not follow the same trend as dynamic response and resulted with SDH having the lowest values of stress and strain. PPCS had significantly higher values of strain than the SDH group, where both the concussion and PPCS groups had significantly higher stress values than the SDH group. Conclusion: This study supports the notion that there is a positive relationship between an increase in the dynamic response and the risk for more serious brain injury. Peak resultant linear acceleration may be more related to SDH meanwhile rotational acceleration may be more relatedto severity of concussion. Despite SDH being the more severe brain injury, on average this group had the lowest values for stress and strain as compared to concussion and PPCS. Finite element analysis of the SDH injuries examined brain tissue values for the group of elements in the model than corresponded to the location of the bleed which may not be reflective of the highest values if the entire cerebrum was considered. More importantly, SDH injuries are vascular injuries and may not necessarily result in damage to the brain. In summary, this study found that the dynamic response of an impact is reflective of injury severity. Understanding the relationship between the dynamic response and the nature of the injury provides important information for developing strategies for injury prevention.
      269Scopus© Citations 38
  • Publication
    The Influence of Impactor Mass on the Dynamic Response of the Hybrid III Headform and Brain Tissue Deformation
    When determining head injury risks through event reconstruction, it is important to understand how individual impact characteristics influence the dynamic response of the head and its internal structures. The effect of impactor mass has not yet been analyzed in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of impactor mass on the dynamic impact response and brain tissue deformation. A 50th-percentile Hybrid III adult male head form was impacted using a simple pendulum system. Impacts to a centric and a non-centric impact location were performed with six varied impactor masses at a velocity of 4.0 m/s. The peak linear and peak angular accelerations were measured. A finite element model (University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model) was used to determine brain deformation, namely, peak maximum principal strain and peak von Mises stress. Impactor mass produced significant differences for peak linear acceleration for centric (F5,24 = 217.55, p = 0.0005) and non-centric (F5,24 = 161.98, p = 0.0005) impact locations, and for peak angular acceleration for centric (F5,24 = 52.51, p = 0.0005) and non-centric (F5,24 = 4.18, p = 0.007) impact locations. A change in impactor mass also had a significant effect on the peak maximum principal strain for centric (F5,24 = 11.04, p = 0.0005) and non-centric (F5,24 = 5.87, p = 0.001) impact locations, and for peak von Mises stress for centric (F5,24 = 24.01, p = 0.0005) and non-centric (F5,24 = 4.62, p = 0.004) impact locations. These results confirm that the impactor mass of an impact should be considered when determining risks and prevention of head and brain injury.
      927Scopus© Citations 14
  • Publication
    Evaluation of the protective capacity of baseball helmets for concussive impacts
    The purpose of this research was to examine how four different types of baseball helmets perform for baseball impacts when performance was measured using variables associated with concussion. A helmeted Hybrid III headform was impacted by a baseball, and linear and rotational acceleration as well as maximum principal strain were measured for each impact condition. The method was successful in distinguishing differences in design characteristics between the baseball helmets. The results indicated that there is a high risk of concussive injury from being hit by a ball regardless of helmet worn.
      348Scopus© Citations 7