Now showing 1 - 10 of 24
  • Publication
    Accurate prediction of blood flow transients : a fluid-structure interaction approach
    (Computational & Mathematical Biomedical Engineering (CMBE), 2009-07-01) ; ;
    Numerical studies are widely employed in establishing blood flow transients in arteries. Unfortunately, many of these are based on rigid arterial geometries where the physiological interaction between the flowing blood and the dynamics of a deforming arterial wall is ignored. Although many recent studies have adopted a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach, they lack the necessary validation and, thus, cannot guarantee the accuracy of their predictions. This work employs a well-validated FSI model to establish the dependency of WSS transients on arterial flexibility and predict flow transients in arterial geometries. Results show a high dependency of WSS transients on arterial wall flexibility, with hoop strains of as low as 0.15% showing significant differences in these transients compared to that seen in a rigid geometry. It is also shown that flow in the atherosclerosis susceptible regions of the vascular tree is characterised by a highly disturbed flow. In these regions, WSS magnitudes are at their lowest, while the WSS spatial gradients, rate of change and oscillatory shear index are at their highest.
  • Publication
    Finite-volume stress analysis in multi-material linear elastic body
    (Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons), 2012-07-05) ; ;
    Correct calculation of stresses at the interface of bonded or otherwise joined materials plays a significant role in many applications. It is therefore important that traction at the material interface is calculated as accurately as possible. This paper describes procedures that can be employed to achieve this goal by using centre-based finite-volume method. Total traction at the interface is calculated by decomposing it into normal and tangential components, both being calculated at each side of the interface, and applying the continuity assumption. The way in which the traction approximation is achieved depends on calculation of tangential gradient of displacement at the interface. To this end, three different methods are proposed and validated against problems with known solutions. It was shown that all methods can be successfully used to simulate problems with multi-material domains, with the procedure based on finite area method being most accurate.
      1231Scopus© Citations 46
  • Publication
    Investigating the behaviour of fluid-filled polyethylene containers under base drop impact: A combined experimental/numerical approach
    In this work, the behaviour of fluid-filled plastic containers under base drop impact is investigated using a combined experimental/numerical approach. In addition, theoretical predictions from two approaches, waterhammer theory and a mass-spring model, are also given. Experimental tests are conducted using a specially designed rig for testing plastic containers (bottles). Tested containers are fully instrumented with pressure transducers and strain gauges. The experiments are simulated using a two-system fluid-structure interaction procedure based on the Finite Volume Method. Good agreement is found between measured and predicted pressure and strain histories. Results obtained are in favour of waterhammer theory.
      694Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    A large strain finite volume method for orthotropic bodies with general material orientations
    This paper describes a finite volume method for orthotropic bodies with general principal material directions undergoing large strains and large rotations. The governing and constitutive relations are presented and the employed updated Lagrangian mathematical model is outlined. In order to maintain equivalence with large strain total Lagrangian methods, the constitutive stiffness tensor is updated transforming the principal material directions to the deformed configuration. Discretisation is performed using the cell-centred finite volume method for unstructured convex polyhedral meshes. The current methodology is successfully verified by numerically examining two separate test cases: a circular hole in an orthotropic plate subjected to a traction and a rotating orthotropic plate containing a hole subjected to a pressure. The numerical predictions have been shown to agree closely with the available analytical solutions. In addition, a 3-D composite component is examined to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed methodology in terms of a variable material orientation and parallel processing.
      990Scopus© Citations 42
  • Publication
    Development of a finite volume contact solver based on the penalty method
    This paper describes the development and application of a frictionless contact stress solver based on the cell-centred finite volume method. The contact methodology, implemented in the open-source software OpenFOAM, is derived from the penalty method commonly used in finite element contact algorithms. The solver is verified on two benchmark tests using the available Hertzian analytical solutions.
      934Scopus© Citations 36
  • Publication
    Modelling the fracture behaviour of adhesively-bonded joints as a function of test rate
    Tapered-double cantilever-beam joints were manufactured from aluminium-alloy substrates bonded together using a single-part, rubber-toughened, epoxy adhesive. The mode I fracture behaviour of the joints was investigated as a function of loading rate by conducting a series of tests at crosshead speeds ranging from 3.33 × 10−6 m/s to 13.5 m/s. Unstable (i.e. stick–slip crack) growth behaviour was observed at test rates between 0.1 m/s and 6 m/s, whilst stable crack growth occurred at both lower and higher rates of loading. The adhesive fracture energy, GIc, was estimated analytically, and the experiments were simulated numerically employing an implicit finite-volume method together with a cohesive-zone model. Good agreement was achieved between the numerical predictions, analytical results and the experimental observations over the entire range of loading rates investigated. The numerical simulations were able very readily to predict the stable crack growth which was observed, at both the slowest and highest rates of loading. However, the unstable crack propagation that was observed could only be predicted accurately when a particular rate-dependent cohesive-zone model was used. This crack-velocity dependency of GIc was also supported by the predictions of an adiabatic thermal-heating model.
      551Scopus© Citations 82
  • Publication
    Effects of bond gap thickness on the fracture of nano-toughened epoxy adhesive joints
    The current work is a combined experimental-numerical study of the fracture behaviour of a nano-toughened, structural epoxy adhesive. The mode I fracture toughness of the adhesive is measured using tapered double-cantilever beam (TDCB) tests with various bond gap thicknesses ranging from 0.25 mm to 2.5 mm. Circumferentially deep-notched tensile specimens are independently employed to measure the cohesive strength of the adhesive as a function of constraint. The experimental TDCB test results are predicted numerically for each bond gap thickness using the Finite Volume method and a Dugdale cohesive zone model. A unique relationship between the fracture energy and the constraint level is established. The effect of bond gap thickness on the fracture behaviour of TDCB joints is hence directly attributed to the variation of the intrinsic fracture energy with constraint and not to the variation of the ‘far field’ plastic zone size with bond gap thickness. Using the well known Rice and Tracey void growth model, a link is established between the voids observed in the fracture process zone, the constraint imposed by the thickness of the adhesive and the resulting fracture energy.
      702Scopus© Citations 57
  • Publication
    Development of a Hip Joint Model for Finite Volume Simulations
    This paper establishes a procedure for numerical analysis of a hip joint using the finite volume method. Patient-specific hip joint geometry is segmented directly from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging datasets and the resulting bone surfaces are processed into a form suitable for volume meshing. A high resolution continuum tetrahedral mesh has been generated, where a sandwich model approach is adopted; the bones are represented as a stiffer cortical shells surrounding more flexible cancellous cores. Cartilage is included as a uniform thickness extruded layer and the effect of layer thickness is investigated. To realistically position the bones, gait analysis has been performed giving the 3D positions of the bones for the full gait cycle. Three phases of the gait cycle are examined using a finite volume based custom structural contact solver implemented in open-source software OpenFOAM.
      958Scopus© Citations 14