Magette, W. L.
Magette, W. L.
Magette, W. L.
Now showing 1 - 10 of 18
- PublicationComposition and distribution of organic waste in Ireland : implications for land application practices(European Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2008-06)
;Questions about the economic and environmental sustainability of current waste management scenarios in Europe for various organic wastes, the policy drive at the EU, and the subsequent adoption of EU policy at national levels, has given momentum for diversion of organic wastes away from landfills and ultimately on to the land. The land has always been the receptor of choice for animal manures, but it is now becoming a popular management route for other organic wastes. Currently in Ireland, land is examined by specific sectors and regarded as a resource available uniquely to each sector. In contrast, it is reasoned in this paper that treating the diverse organic wastes potentially suited for land application as a unit waste stream and developing a detailed accounting of waste quantities and characteristics would serve as a gateway towards a consistent and holistic strategy from which a comprehensive land application strategy at national level or regional level could be developed. The methodology used is a desk-based inventory that relied on existing secondary data in published reports. A literature based survey and quantification of organic wastes potentially suited for land application, in Ireland, was completed. The survey included a broad range of organic wastes from agricultural and non-agricultural activities - with animal manure, spent mushroom compost, biodegradable municipal waste, biosolids, sludge from onsite treatment plants, organic wastes from industrial sources the major ones. Reports from the Central Statistical Office of Ireland, study reports at the Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Waste Management Plans, Sludge Management Plans, County Waste Registries and European sources were consulted in association with codes and guidelines to determine the quantity and composition of organic wastes potentially suited for land application. Major and minor plant nutrients were used as a basis to describe the composition of the organic wastes. Finally a GIS-based database of the organic wastes potentially suited for land application was developed and a distributional analysis was performed at different spatial scales. Results of our analysis confirm that animal waste remains the largest source of organic waste in Ireland - as in most other European countries - and the major concern for management through land application due to the sheer volume of the waste. Between the small percentage of organic wastes of non-animal origin biosolids, sludge from industrial sources, biodegradable municipal wastes and spent mushroom compost constitute the major share. There is a spatial distribution of the organic wastes in terms of both the total quantity of organic waste and type of the organic wastes. While the volume of the non-agricultural wastes appears to be insignificant – compared to organic waste of animal origin – at a National level it constitutes a high local problem at lesser spatial scales, i.e. counties and regions. The research suggests that there is a need to a leap from the present, sector-specific approach used in managing the land application of waste to a comprehensive land application strategy that considers the total quantity and quality of waste relative to the land base suitable for receiving them. 7644
- PublicationPrediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region(Elsevier, 2009-04)
;Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A geographical information system (GIS) 'model' of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research and data from the scientific literature were used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region, which can aid waste planning and policy decisions. This technique will also aid the design of future waste management strategies as a function of demographic changes and development. By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other locations. 3945Scopus© Citations 67
- PublicationUrban attitude towards land application of municipal and industrial biosolids(The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, 2010-03)
;Managing municipal and industrial biosolids by recycling through the land is currently a strategic policy direction in Ireland. Although recycling biosolids is a plausible management alternative it can also be a contentious issue. A descriptive- correlational study was conducted in the city of Dublin, Ireland to determine the public’s knowledge about biosolids and attitude to biosolids recycling. Door-to-door surveys of 500 households were conducted. Data were evaluated with respect to population demographics (gender, age, education level, etc.) and contingency analysis was performed. The results show that , while a general high level of consensus exists on the general idea of recycling of waste and beneficial reuse of biosolids, support decreases the closer (both physically and psychologically) this activity is to respondents. There is a gap between people’s positive view of biosolids as a resource and the scepticism about recycling biosolids. To make biosolids reuse on land more appealing to an urban community, education and awareness campaigns should capitalise on the positive views the public has about biosolids as a resource and the concept of recycling. 859
- PublicationA nitrate groundwater standard for the 1990 farm bill(Soil and Water Conservation Society, 1989)
; ; ;Overuse of fertilizer and/or animal wastes has been cited as the reason for elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in agricultural areas. In coastal plain regions of the United States and in other areas where farming practices are conducted over aquifers in unconsolidated sediments, nitrate contamination may occur primarily as a result of climactic abnormalities even when the nutrients are used according to recommended practices. Water quality standards are often cited as a way to protect to protect groundwater quality. Research suggests that current best management practices are not capable of allowing producers in coastal plain regions to always comply with a nitrate standard for groundwater of 10mg/l of nitrate. 159
- PublicationNutrient and Sediment Removal by Vegetated Filter Stips(American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 1989-03)
; ; ;A field study utilizing simulated rainfall and bare plots 5.5m wide by 22m long was conducted to study the effectiveness of vegetated filter strips 4.6 and 9.2m long in removing nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff. Losses of N and P from plots with filters were highly variable as compared to plots with no filters. Generally, nutrient removals appeared to be greater with the longer filters, but decreased as the number of runoff events increased. Mass losses of TSS, TN and TP in surface runoff were reduced by 66%, 0% and 27%, respectively, by 4.6m (15ft) long filters. TSS, TN and TP reductions by 9.2m (30ft) long filter strips of the lengths utilized in this study were effective in removing sediment from runoff but should not be relied upon as the primary means to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural areas. 1220
- PublicationTargeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region(Elsevier, 2011-09)
;Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dún Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these strategies was devised after interviews with both the residential and commercial sectors to help make optimal waste management the norm for both sectors. Strategy (b), (e) and (f) are detailed in this paper. By integrating a human element into accepted waste management approaches, these strategies will make optimal waste behaviour easier to achieve. Ultimately this will help divert waste from landfill and improve waste management practice as a whole for the region. This method of devising targeted intervention strategies can be adapted for many other regions. 618Scopus© Citations 4
- PublicationManaging Ground Water Quality in Relation to Agricultural Activities(Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing), 1989-06)
; ; ;Ground water quality is an environmental issue of national concern. Agricultural activities, because they involve large land areas, often are cited as a major contributor of ground water contamination. It appears that some degree of ground water contamination from agricultural land use is inevitable, especially where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration. For this reason, and because agriculture differs significantly from point sources of pollution, farmers, policymakers, and scientists need alternative management strategies by which to protect ground water. Mathematical models coupled to geographic information systems to form expert systems can be important management tools for both policymakers and agricultural producers. An expert system can provide farmers, researchers, and environmental managers with information by which to better manage agricultural production systems to minimize ground water contamination. Significant research is necessary to perfect such a system, necessitating interim ground water management strategies that include not only a strong research program, but educational and public policy components as well. 1093Scopus© Citations 3
- PublicationPrediction of Residential BMW Generation According to Socio-Economic And Household Characteristics For The Dublin Region(Eurowaste, 2007-10)
;Despite the fact that biodegradable wastes account for 72% of the total municipal waste stream in Ireland, less than 6% of collected biodegradable wastes were recovered in 2004. Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. This paper discusses the potential household biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation for the Dublin Region, Ireland, using statistical data on socio-demographics, particularly household size and social class as the main variables. Historical research was used to assign BMW generation rates. A Geographical Information System (GIS) "model" of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. BMW generation was predicted within a diverse "landscape" of residential areas. The results highlight the importance of tailoring waste management strategies to small management areas. 202
- PublicationCharacterization of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin Region(Widner University, 2007-03-18)
;Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of Biodegradable Municipal Waste (BMW) generation for the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A Geographical Information System (GIS) „model‟ of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research was used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region. The GIS facilitates the visual and spatial distribution of BMW to be assessed within the region. BMW generation was predicted within a diverse „landscape‟ of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals etc). By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other Irish cities. 137
- PublicationEutrophication from agricultural sources(Environmental Protection Agency, 2008)
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