Now showing 1 - 10 of 18
  • Publication
    A nitrate groundwater standard for the 1990 farm bill
    (Soil and Water Conservation Society, 1989) ; ; ;
    Overuse of fertilizer and/or animal wastes has been cited as the reason for elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in agricultural areas. In coastal plain regions of the United States and in other areas where farming practices are conducted over aquifers in unconsolidated sediments, nitrate contamination may occur primarily as a result of climactic abnormalities even when the nutrients are used according to recommended practices. Water quality standards are often cited as a way to protect to protect groundwater quality. Research suggests that current best management practices are not capable of allowing producers in coastal plain regions to always comply with a nitrate standard for groundwater of 10mg/l of nitrate.
      219
  • Publication
    Prediction of Residential BMW Generation According to Socio-Economic And Household Characteristics For The Dublin Region
    (Eurowaste, 2007-10) ;
    Despite the fact that biodegradable wastes account for 72% of the total municipal waste stream in Ireland, less than 6% of collected biodegradable wastes were recovered in 2004. Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. This paper discusses the potential household biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation for the Dublin Region, Ireland, using statistical data on socio-demographics, particularly household size and social class as the main variables. Historical research was used to assign BMW generation rates. A Geographical Information System (GIS) "model" of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. BMW generation was predicted within a diverse "landscape" of residential areas. The results highlight the importance of tailoring waste management strategies to small management areas.
      284
  • Publication
    Characterization of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin Region
    (Widner University, 2007-03-18) ;
    Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of Biodegradable Municipal Waste (BMW) generation for the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A Geographical Information System (GIS) „model‟ of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research was used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region. The GIS facilitates the visual and spatial distribution of BMW to be assessed within the region. BMW generation was predicted within a diverse „landscape‟ of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals etc). By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other Irish cities.
      207
  • Publication
      713
  • Publication
    Urban attitude towards land application of municipal and industrial biosolids
    (The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, 2010-03) ;
    Managing municipal and industrial biosolids by recycling through the land is currently a strategic policy direction in Ireland. Although recycling biosolids is a plausible management alternative it can also be a contentious issue. A descriptive- correlational study was conducted in the city of Dublin, Ireland to determine the public’s knowledge about biosolids and attitude to biosolids recycling. Door-to-door surveys of 500 households were conducted. Data were evaluated with respect to population demographics (gender, age, education level, etc.) and contingency analysis was performed. The results show that , while a general high level of consensus exists on the general idea of recycling of waste and beneficial reuse of biosolids, support decreases the closer (both physically and psychologically) this activity is to respondents. There is a gap between people’s positive view of biosolids as a resource and the scepticism about recycling biosolids. To make biosolids reuse on land more appealing to an urban community, education and awareness campaigns should capitalise on the positive views the public has about biosolids as a resource and the concept of recycling.
      920
  • Publication
    Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region
    (Elsevier, 2009-04) ;
    Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercial establishments were hypothesized as the key determinants contributing to the spatial variability of BMW generation. A geographical information system (GIS) 'model' of BMW generation was created using ArcMap, a component of ArcGIS 9. Statistical data including socio-economic status and household size were mapped on an electoral district basis. Historical research and data from the scientific literature were used to assign BMW generation rates to residential and commercial establishments. These predictions were combined to give overall BMW estimates for the region, which can aid waste planning and policy decisions. This technique will also aid the design of future waste management strategies as a function of demographic changes and development. By changing the input data, this estimation tool can be adapted for use in other locations.
      4112Scopus© Citations 71
  • Publication
    Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region
    (Elsevier, 2011-09) ;
    Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dún Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these strategies was devised after interviews with both the residential and commercial sectors to help make optimal waste management the norm for both sectors. Strategy (b), (e) and (f) are detailed in this paper. By integrating a human element into accepted waste management approaches, these strategies will make optimal waste behaviour easier to achieve. Ultimately this will help divert waste from landfill and improve waste management practice as a whole for the region. This method of devising targeted intervention strategies can be adapted for many other regions.
      740Scopus© Citations 5