Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    EduCube: The 1U Educational CubeSat
    EduCube is a 1U Cubesat developed specifically for educational purposes. It is used in a hands-on training laboratory for Masters students to allow them to gain familiarity with the satellite subsystems found in a Cubesat. The students work in groups, following a set of exercises and also devising their own experiments. EduCube was designed and built in-house and is largely compliant with the Cal Poly standard.
  • Publication
    Two Classes of Gamma-ray Bursts Distinguished within the First Second of Their Prompt Emission
    Studies of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) properties, such as duration and spectral hardness, have found evidence for additional classes, beyond the short/hard and long/soft prototypes, using model-dependent methods. In this paper, a model-independent approach was used to analyse the gamma-ray light curves of large samples of GRBs detected by BATSE, Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM. All the features were extracted from the GRB time profiles in four energy bands using the Stationary Wavelet Transform and Principal Component Analysis. t-distributed Stochastic Neighbourhood Embedding (t-SNE) visualisation of the features revealed two distinct groups of Swift/BAT bursts using the T100 interval with 64 ms resolution data. When the same analysis was applied to 4 ms resolution data, two groups were seen to emerge within the first second (T1) post-trigger. These two groups primarily consisted of short/hard (Group 1) and long/soft (Group 2) bursts, and were 95% consistent with the groups identified using the T100 64 ms resolution data. Kilonova candidates, arising from compact object mergers, were found to belong to Group 1, while those events with associated supernovae fell into Group 2. Differences in cumulative counts between the two groups in the first second, and in the minimum variability timescale, identifiable only with the 4 ms resolution data, may account for this result. Short GRBs have particular significance for multi-messenger science as a distinctive EM signature of a binary merger, which may be discovered by its gravitational wave emissions. Incorporating the T1 interval into classification algorithms may support the rapid classification of GRBs, allowing for an improved prioritisation of targets for follow-up observations.
      24Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    Two Dimensional Clustering of Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM Gamma-ray Bursts
    Studies of Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) properties, such as duration and spectral hardness, have found evidence for additional classes beyond the short-hard (merger) and long-soft (collapsar) prototypes. Several clustering analyses of the duration-hardness plane identified a third, intermediate duration, class. In this work, Gaussian Mixture Model-based (GMM) clustering is applied to the Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM samples of GRBs. The results obtained by the hierarchical combination of Gaussian components (or clusters) based on an entropy criterion are presented. This method counteracts possible overfitting arising from the application of Gaussian models to non-Gaussian underlying data. While the initial GMM clustering of the hardness-duration plane identifies three components (short/intermediate/long) for the Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM samples, only two components (short/long) remain once the entropy criterion is applied. The analysis presented here suggests that the intermediate duration class may be the result of overfitting, rather than evidence of a distinct underlying population.
      10Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    X-shooter and ALMA spectroscopy of GRB 161023A
    Context. Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced during the dramatic deaths of massive stars with very short lifetimes, meaning that they explode close to the birth place of their progenitors. Over a short period they become the most luminous objects observable in the Universe, being perfect beacons to study high-redshift star-forming regions. Aims. We aim to use the afterglow of GRB 161023A at a redshift z = 2.710 as a background source to study the environment of the explosion and the intervening systems along its line of sight. Methods. For the first time, we complement ultraviolet (UV), optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with millimetre spectroscopy using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), which allows us to probe the molecular content of the host galaxy. The X-shooter spectrum shows a plethora of absorption features including fine-structure and metastable transitions of Fe, Ni, Si, C, and O. We present photometry ranging from 43 s to over 500 days after the burst. Results. We infer a host-galaxy metallicity of [Zn/H] = −1.11 ± 0.07, which, corrected for dust depletion, results in [X/H] = −0.94 ± 0.08. We do not detect molecular features in the ALMA data, but we derive limits on the molecular content of log(NCO/cm−2) < 15.7 and log(NHCO+/cm−-12, which are consistent with those that we obtain from the optical spectra, log(NH2/cm−2)< 15.2 and log(NCO/cm−2) < 14.5. Within the host galaxy, we detect three velocity systems through UV, optical and NIR absorption spectroscopy, all with levels that were excited by the GRB afterglow. We determine the distance from these systems to the GRB to be in the range between 0.7 and 1.0 kpc. The sight line to GRB 161023A shows nine independent intervening systems, most of them with multiple components. Conclusions. Although no molecular absorption was detected for GRB 161023A, we show that GRB millimetre spectroscopy is now feasible and is opening a new window on the study of molecular gas within star-forming galaxies at all redshifts. The most favoured lines of sight for this purpose will be those with high metallicity and dust.
      200Scopus© Citations 12