Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    The effect of 25‐hydroxyvitamin D3 and phytase inclusion on pig performance, bone parameters and pork quality in finisher pigs
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing both phytase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) on pig performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics, bone parameters and pork quality in finisher pigs. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial comprising of four dietary treatments. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were blocked according to live weight and sex and allocated to the following dietary treatments: low P (4.81 g/kg) diet (basal) (T1); low P diet + phytase (T2); low P diet + 25-OH-D₃ (T3) and low P diet + phytase + 25-OH-D₃ (T4). Pigs supplemented with phytase had a lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) (2.45 kg vs. 2.59 kg; p < 0.05) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.74 kg/kg vs. 2.85 kg/kg; p < 0.05) compared to pigs offered the nonphytase diets. Pigs offered phytase diets had a higher (p < 0.05) coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) of ash, phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca) compared with pigs offered the nonphytase supplemented diets. Pigs offered the 25-OH-D3 diets had a higher CATTD of N and ash. Pigs offered the phytase diets had increased (p < 0.05) bone DM, ash, Ca, P and density compared to the nonphytase diets. There was a significant interaction (p < 0.05) between phytase and 25-OH-D3 on cook loss. Pigs offered 25-OH-D3 had increased cook loss over the basal diet; however, there was no effect on cook loss when phytase and 25-OH-D3 were offered in combination compared to the phytase only diet. Pigs offered 25-OH-D3 exhibited higher (p < 0.05) Warner Bratzler shear force values and lower (p < 0.05) pork lightness (L*) surface colorimeter values. In conclusion, there was no benefit to offering a combination of phytase and 25-OH-D3 on pig performance, bone parameters or pork quality.
    Scopus© Citations 16  508
  • Publication
    The use of synthetic and natural vitamin D sources in pig diets to improve meat quality and vitamin D content
    This study investigated the effects of synthetic and natural sources of vitamin D biofortification in pig diets on pork vitamin D activity and pork quality. One hundred and twenty pigs (60 male, 60 female) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 55 d feeding period. The dietary treatments were (1)50 μg vitamin D₃/kg of feed; (2)50 μg of 25-hydroxvitamin D₃/kg of feed (25-OH-D₃); (3)50 μg vitamin D₂/kg of feed; (4)50 μg vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms/kg of feed (Mushroom D₂). The pigs offered the 25-OH-D₃ diet exhibited the highest (P < 0.001) serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequently exhibited the highest (P < 0.05) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity. Mushroom D2 and 25-OH-D3 supplementation increased pork antioxidant status. The vitamin D₂-enriched mushrooms improved (P < 0.05) pig performance, carcass weight and LT colour. In conclusion, 25-OH-D₃ is the most successful source for increasing pork vitamin D activity, while Mushroom D2 may be a new avenue to improve animal performance and pork quality.
    Scopus© Citations 47  388
  • Publication
    Cholecalciferol supplementation in heifer diets increases beef vitamin D concentration and improves beef tenderness
    This study investigated the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) supplementation on beef vitamin D activity, beef tenderness and sensory attributes. Thirty heifers were randomly allocated to one of three finishing dietary treatments [(T1) basal diet + 0 IU vitamin D₃; (T2) basal diet + 2000 IU vitamin D₃; and (T3) basal diet + 4000 IU vitamin D₃] for a 30 day period pre-slaughter. Vitamin D₃ supplementation linearly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25-OH-D3) concentrations (R2 = 0.48), Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (R2 = 0.78) as well as individually vitamin D₃ (R2 = 0.84) and 25-OH-D₃ (R2 = 0.75). The highest vitamin D₃ inclusion diet (T3) had a 42% increase (P < 0.001) in LT vitamin D activity compared to the intermediate diet (T2) and a 145% increase over the lowest level diet (T1). Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased LT shear (P < 0.05) force values after 14 days chilling. Sensory parameters were not affected (P > 0.05). In conclusion, through short-term vitamin D₃ supplementation of cattle diets, beef vitamin D activity can successfully be enhanced
    Scopus© Citations 22  391
  • Publication
    Mycotoxin binder increases growth performance, nutrient digestibility and digestive health of finisher pigs offered wheat based diets grown under different agronomical conditions
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a wheat-based diet, exhibiting different levels of mycotoxin contamination and the presence of a mycotoxin binder on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and digestive health in finisher pigs. Sixty-four pigs (38.7 kg (SD 3.48 kg)) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments: (T1) low quality wheat diet, (T2) low quality wheat diet containing 2 g/kg of a mycotoxin binder, (T3) high quality wheat diet, (T4) high quality wheat diet containing 2 g/kg of a mycotoxin binder. The inclusion of wheat was 500 g/kg. The mycotoxin binder used was a Hydrated Sodium-Calcium-Aluminum-Silicate, which also included calcium propionate and calcium formate. The low quality wheat grain had a higher level of zearalenone (233.02 vs. 33.36 μg/kg), aflatoxin (4.08 vs. 2.94 μg/kg) and ochratoxin (28.20 vs. 4.23 μg/kg). Pigs offered the low quality wheat diet had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (P < 0.05), average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0.001) and had a reduced coefficient of apparent total tract digestibility (CATTD) (P < 0.05) of nitrogen (N) and gross energy (GE) compared with pigs offered the high quality wheat diets. The inclusion of a mycotoxin binder improved ADG and ADFI (P < 0.05) and also increased the CATTD of N and GE compared to diets without a mycotoxin binder. Pigs offered the low quality wheat diets had increased (P < 0.05) expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the duodenum and colon and of claudin 2 (CLDN2) (P < 0.001) in the duodenum, compared to pigs offered the high quality wheat diets. Pigs offered diets containing a mycotoxin binder had increased expression of ghrelin (GHRL) (P < 0.05) in the duodenum compared to pigs offered diets without a mycotoxin binder. There was a wheat × mycotoxin binder interaction on the expression of peptide transporter 1 gene (SLC15A1/PEPT1) and sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 gene (SLC5A1/SGLT1) (P < 0.05) in the duodenum. Pigs offered the low quality wheat with a mycotoxin binder had lower expression of SLC15A1/PEPT1 and SLC5A1/SGLT1 expression compared to the low quality wheat diet only. However, there was no response to mycotoxin binder supplementation with the high quality wheat diet. In conclusion, the low quality wheat reduced ADG, ADFI, nutrient digestibility and modified the gene expression of genes involved in intestinal nutrient transport and inflammation. The supplementation of a mycotoxin binder improved ADG, ADFI, nutrient digestibility and also improved digestive health through increases in nutrient transporter and tight junction gene expression.
    Scopus© Citations 9  458
  • Publication
    Vitamin D-biofortified beef: A comparison of cholecalciferol with synthetic versus UVB-mushroom-derived ergosterol as feed source
    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p < 0.001) Longissimus thoracis (LT) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p < 0.05) and serum 25-OH-D concentration (by 20–36%; p < 0.05), compared to that from Vit D2 and Mushroom D2 supplemented animals. Irrespective of vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary treatments. In conclusion, vitamin D3 biofortification of cattle diets is the most efficacious way to enhance total beef vitamin D activity.
    Scopus© Citations 21  288
  • Publication
    The potential of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 enriched diets in laying hens, to improve egg vitamin D content and antioxidant availability
    Sixty Hy-line brown hens were randomly assigned to four barns (n = 4) to investigate the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) versus 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D₃) enriched diets on egg vitamin D concentration, antioxidant activity and egg quality parameters. Experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square consisting of 4 experimental treatments and 4 experimental periods. The treatments were (1) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ (2) 3000 IU of vitamin D₃ (3) 1500 IU of vitamin D₃ and 37.5 μg of 25-OH-D₃ (4) 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ per kg of feed. Hens offered 75 μg of 25-OH-D₃ had a higher (P < 0.05) total vitamin D egg yolk content (5.06 μg/egg), and antioxidant activity compared to other dietary treatments. The results demonstrates that the enrichment of hen diets with 25-OH-D₃ may be a useful approach and may contribute between 25 and 33% towards total vitamin D daily requirements while also improving antioxidant status of eggs. Industrial relevance: Vitamin D deficiency is now regarded as a major issue in northern Europe and has been described as a pandemic. A growing interest in vitamin D food fortification in northern Europe to satisfy the current dietary intake recommendations has been observed. The use of a bio-addition approach for increasing vitamin D intake through biofortification of livestock feeds attracts attention. Enrichment of the hen's diet with vitamin D may also supply additional benefits of increasing antioxidant activity. This increase in antioxidant activity may have the ability to increase food quality and extend the shelf life. This study explores the effect of vitamin D enriched diets fed to laying hens on vitamin D egg yolk content and antioxidant activity in the egg. These enriched diets could demonstrate that enrichment of hen diets with 25-hyroxvitamin D₃ may be a useful approach for tackling low vitamin D intakes and improving antioxidant capacity of eggs.
    Scopus© Citations 14  333