Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Publication
    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung diseases: novel vasoconstrictor pathway
    Pulmonary hypertension is a well recognised complication of chronic hypoxic lung diseases, which are among the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Development of pulmonary hypertension independently predicts reduced life expectancy. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, long-term oxygen therapy ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and greatly improves survival, although the correction of alveolar hypoxia and pulmonary hypertension is only partial. Advances in understanding of the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone show that chronic vasoconstriction plays a more important part in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension than previously thought, and that structural vascular changes contribute less. Trials of existing vasodilators show that pulmonary hypertension can be ameliorated and systemic oxygen delivery improved in carefully selected patients, although systemic hypotensive effects limit the doses used. Vasoconstrictor pathways that are selective for the pulmonary circulation can be blocked to reduce hypoxic pulmonary hypertension without causing systemic hypotension, and thus provide potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies.
      1161Scopus© Citations 62
  • Publication
    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension: the paradigm is changing
    We began in the early 2000s to explore the hypothesis that vasoconstrictor mechanisms, selectively altered in the lung, were significant contributors to the increase in pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary hypertension. We found that in the normal rat pulmonary circulation the RhoA-ROCK pathway is a greater contributor to vasoconstriction than it is in systemic vessels, demonstrating an important phenotypic difference in the regulation of vascular tone in the two circulations.
      251Scopus© Citations 5
  • Publication
    Shear Stress Markedly Alters the Proteomic Response to Hypoxia in Human Pulmonary Endothelial Cells
    Blood flow produces shear stress that homeostatically regulates the phenotype of pulmonary endothelial cells, exerting antiinflammatory and antithrombotic actions and maintaining normal barrier function. Hypoxia due to diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), causes vasoconstriction, increased vascular resistance, and pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia-induced changes in endothelial function play a central role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. However, the interactive effects of hypoxia and shear stress on the pulmonary endothelial phenotype have not been studied. Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were cultured in normoxia or hypoxia while subjected to physiological shear stress or in static conditions. Unbiased proteomics was used to identify hypoxia-induced changes in protein expression. Using publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing datasets, differences in gene expression between the alveolar endothelial cells from COPD and healthy lungs were identified. Sixty proteins were identified whose expression changed in response to hypoxia in conditions of physiological shear stress but not in static conditions. These included proteins that are crucial for endothelial homeostasis (e.g., JAM-A [junctional adhesion molecule A], ERG [ETS transcription factor ERG]) or implicated in pulmonary hypertension (e.g., thrombospondin-1). Fifty-five of these 60 have not been previously implicated in the development of hypoxic lung diseases. mRNA for 5 of the 60 (ERG, MCRIP1 [MAPK regulated corepressor interacting protein 1], EIF4A2 [eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2], HSP90AA1 [heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1], and DNAJA1 [DnaJ Hsp40 (heat shock protein family) member A1]) showed similar changes in the alveolar endothelial cells of COPD compared with healthy lungs in females but not in males. These data show that the proteomic responses of the pulmonary microvascular endothelium to hypoxia are significantly altered by shear stress and suggest that these shear-hypoxia interactions are important in the development of hypoxic pulmonary vascular disease.
      45Scopus© Citations 5
  • Publication
    Gremlin Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Hypertension
    (Ovid Technologies Wolters Kluwer -American Heart Association, 2012-01-13) ; ; ;
    Background—Pulmonary hypertension occurs in chronic hypoxic lung diseases, significantly worsening morbidity and mortality. The important role of altered bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in pulmonary hypertension was first suspected after the identification of heterozygous BMP receptor mutations as the underlying defect in the rare heritable form of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that BMP signaling was also reduced in common forms of pulmonary hypertension, including hypoxic pulmonary hypertension; however, the mechanism of this reduction has not previously been elucidated. Methods and Results—Expression of 2 BMP antagonists, gremlin 1 and gremlin 2, was higher in the lung than in other organs, and gremlin 1 was further increased in the walls of small intrapulmonary vessels of mice during the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia stimulated gremlin secretion from human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in vitro, which inhibited endothelial BMP signaling and BMP-stimulated endothelial repair. Haplodeficiency of gremlin 1 augmented BMP signaling in the hypoxic mouse lung and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance by attenuating vascular remodeling. Furthermore, gremlin was increased in the walls of small intrapulmonary vessels in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and the rare heritable form of pulmonary arterial hypertension in a distribution suggesting endothelial localization. Conclusions—These findings demonstrate a central role for increased gremlin in hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and the increased pulmonary vascular resistance in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. High levels of basal gremlin expression in the lung may account for the unique vulnerability of the pulmonary circulation to heterozygous mutations of BMP type 2 receptor in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
      466Scopus© Citations 83
  • Publication
    Gremlin 1 is required for macrophage M2 polarization
    Pro-proliferative, M2-like polarization of macrophages is a critical step in the development of fibrosis and remodeling in chronic lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Macrophages in healthy and diseased lungs express gremlin 1 (Grem1), a secreted glycoprotein that acts in both paracrine and autocrine manners to modulate cellular function. Increased Grem1 expression plays a central role in pulmonary fibrosis and remodeling, however, the role of Grem1 in M2-like polarization of macrophages has not previously been explored. The results reported here show that recombinant Grem1 potentiated M2-like polarization of mouse macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in response to the Th2 cytokines IL4 and IL13. Genetic depletion of Grem1 in BMDMs inhibited M2 polarization while exogenous gremlin 1 could partially rescue this effect. Taken together, these findings reveal that gremlin 1 is required for M2-like polarization of macrophages. We show here that gremlin 1 potentiated M2 polarization of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in response to the Th2 cytokines IL4 and IL13. Genetic depletion of Grem1 in BMDMs inhibited M2 polarization while exogenous gremlin 1 partially rescued this effect. Taken together, these findings reveal a previously unknown requirement for gremlin 1 in M2 polarization of macrophages and suggest a novel cellular mechanism promoting fibrosis and remodeling in lung diseases.