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  • Publication
    Estimation of chicken intake using metabolomics derived markers
    Background: Improved assessment of meat intake using metabolomics derived markers can provide objective data and could be helpful in clarifying proposed associations between meat intake and health.Objective: The objective was to identify novel markers of chicken intake using a metabolomics approach, and use markers to determine intake in an independent cohort. Methods: Ten participants (age, 62 y; BMI, 28.25 Kg/m2) in NutriTech Food Intake Study (NCT01684917) consumed increased amounts of chicken from 88 to 290 g/day over three weeks. Urine and blood samples were analyzed by NMR and MS, respectively. Multivariate data analysis was performed to identify markers associated with chicken intake. A calibration curve was built based on dose response association using NutriTech data. Bland and Altman analysis evaluated the agreement between reported and calculated chicken intake in National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) cohort. Results: Multivariate data analysis of postprandial and fasting urine samples collected in NutriTech revealed good discrimination between high (290 g/day) and low (88 g/day)  chicken intakes. Urinary metabolite profiles showed differences in metabolite levels between low and high chicken intakes. Examining metabolite profiles revealed guanidoacetate significantly increased from 1.47 to 3.66 mmol/L following increasing chicken intake from 88 to 290 g/day (P < 0.01). Using a calibration curve developed from NutriTech study, chicken intake was calculated in NANS, where chicken consumers had higher guanidoacetate excretion (0.70 mmol/L) than non-consumers (0.47 mmol/L) (P < 0.01). Bland and Altman analysis revealed good agreement between reported and calculated intakes with a bias of -30.2g/day. Plasma metabolite analysis demonstrated that 3-methylhistidine (3-Meth-His) was a more suitable indicator of chicken intake compared with 1-methylhistidine (1-Meth-His). Conclusions: Guanidoacetate was successfully identified and confirmed as a marker of chicken intake, and importantly its measurement in fasting urine samples could be used to determine chicken intake in a free-living population.
      555Scopus© Citations 22
  • Publication
    The Relationship between Fish Intake and Urinary Trimethylamine-N-Oxide
    Scope: Fish intake is reported to be associated with certain health benefits; however, accurate assessment of fish intake is still problematic. The objective of this study is to identify fish intake biomarkers and examine relationships with health parameters in a free‐living population. Methods and results: In the NutriTech study, ten participants randomized into the fish group consume increasing quantities of fish for 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Urine is analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Trimethylamine‐N‐oxide (TMAO), dimethylamine, and dimethyl sulfone are identified and display significant dose–response with intake (p < 0.05). Fish consumption yields a greater increase in urinary TMAO compared to red meat. Biomarker‐derived fish intake is calculated in the National Adult Nutrition Survey cross‐sectional study. However, the correlation between fish intake and TMAO (r = 0.148, p < 0.01) and that between fish intake and calculated fish intake (r = 0.142, p < 0.01) are poor. In addition, TMAO shows significantly positive correlation with serum insulin and insulin resistance in males and the relationship is more pronounced for males with high dietary fat intake. Conclusion: Urinary TMAO displays a strong dose–response relationship with fish intake; however, use of TMAO alone is insufficient to determine fish intake in a free‐living population.
    Scopus© Citations 23  248