Now showing 1 - 10 of 29
  • Publication
    Analysing Fatigue in Chronic Ankle Instability [Poster Presentation]
    Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries suffered by athletes in sports. It is estimated that an upwards of 70% of athletes will develop chronic ankle instability following an initial sprain. Despite the high prevalence of CAI, knowledge of the mechanism or prevention of repeated ankle sprains is limited . Since most sprains occur in the latter halves of matches, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fatigue on lower limb movement variability in individuals with and without CAI during running gait using 3D inertial sensors
  • Publication
    Use of body worn sensors to predict ankle injuries using screening tools
    Background The Single Leg Squat (SLS) is an important screening tool in predicting those at an increased risk of ankle injuries as it relates to landing, running and cutting tasks. However, clinical analysis of this exercise is often completed visually with relatively poor intra-rater reliability. More detailed analysis of SLS completed in biomechanics laboratories is time-consuming and costly. Recent developments in body worn sensors may allow for quick assessments that produce valid and reliable data.Objective To explore a model for leveraging data obtained from wearable sensors to aid in ankle injury risk factor screening.Design A single case study design, with qualitative analysis of quantitative data.Setting University research laboratory.Participants A single participant (female, age = 24 years; height = 158 cm, body mass = 47 kg) was chosen. The participant was familiar with the SLS exercise and had completed it as part of their exercise routine for the past year.Interventions The participant completed 10 left SLS repetitions. These were recorded using the sensors and repetitions where the participant lost balance were noted. Loss of balance was defined as when the subject was unable to maintain single leg stance during the downward or upward phase of the movement and placed their other foot on the ground for support.Main outcome measurements Visual analysis showed signals from the wearable sensors (accelerometer Y and gyroscope Z) were altered when the participant lost their balance compared to signals obtained when the participant maintained balance.Conclusions These preliminary results indicate that body worn sensors may be able to automatize screening tools such as the SLS. An automated system for characterising and quantifying deviations from good form could be developed to aid clinicians and researchers. Such a system would provide objective and reliable data to clinicians and allow researchers to analyse movements quicker and in a more naturalistic setting.
  • Publication
    Lower extremity function during gait in participants with first time acute lateral ankle sprain compared to controls
    Laboratory analyses of chronic ankle instability populations during gait have elucidated a number of anomalous movement patterns. No current research exists analysing these movement patterns in a group in the acute phase of lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury. It is possible that participants with an acute LAS display movement patterns continuous with their chronically impaired counterparts. Sixty eight participants with acute LAS and nineteen non-injured participants completed five gait trials. 3D lower extremity temporal kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 200ms pre- to 200ms post-heel strike (period 1) and from 200ms pre- to 200ms post-toe off (period 2). During period 1, the LAS group displayed increased knee flexion with increased net extensor pattern at the knee joint, increased ankle inversion with a greater inversion moment, and reduced ankle plantar flexion, compared to the non-injured control group. During period 2, the LAS group displayed decreased hip extension with a decrease in the flexor moment at the hip, and decreased ankle plantar flexion with a decrease in the net plantar flexion moment, compared to the non-injured control group. These results indicate that participants with acute LAS display coordination strategies which may play a role in the onset of chronicity or recovery.
      899Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Single-leg drop landing movement strategies in participants with chronic ankle instability compared with lateral ankle sprain 'copers'
    Individuals with CAI display alterations in hip joint kinematics and energetics during a unipodal landing task compared to LAS 'copers'. These alterations may be responsible for the increased risk of injury experienced by individuals with CAI during landing manoeuvres. Thus, clinicians must recognise the potential for joints proximal to the affected ankle to contribute to impaired function following an acute lateral ankle sprain injury and to develop rehabilitation protocols accordingly.
      1180Scopus© Citations 47
  • Publication
    Evaluating Performance of the Single Leg Squat Exercise with a Single Inertial Measurement Unit
    The single leg squat (SLS) is an important component of lower limb rehabilitation and injury risk screening tools. This study sought to investigate whether a single lumbar-worn IMU is capable of discriminating between correct and incorrect performance of the SLS. Nineteen healthy volunteers (15 males, 4 females, age: 26.09± 3.98 years, height: 1.75± 0.14m, body mass: 75.2±14.2kg) were fitted with a single IMU on the lumbar spine and asked to perform 10 left leg SLS. These repetitions were recorded and labelled by a chartered physiotherapist. Features were extracted from the labelled sensor data. These features were used to train and evaluate a random-forests classifier. The system achieved an average of 92% accuracy, 78% sensitivity and 97% specificity. These results indicate that a single IMU has the potential to differentiate between a correctly and incorrectly completed SLS. This may allow such devices to be used by clinicians to help track rehabilitation of patients and screen for potential injury risks. Furthermore, the classifier described may be a useful input to an exercise biofeedback application.
      574Scopus© Citations 21
  • Publication
    Balance failure in single limb stance due to ankle sprain injury: An analysis of center of pressure using the fractal dimension method
    Instrumented postural control analysis plays an important role in evaluating the effects of injury on dynamic stability during balance tasks, and is often conveyed with measures based on the displacement of the center-of-pressure (COP) assessed with a force platform. However, the desired outcome of the task is frequently characterized by a loss of dynamic stability, secondary to injury. Typically, these failed trials are discarded during research investigations, with the potential loss of informative data pertaining to task success. The novelty of the present study is that COP characteristics of failed trials in injured participants are compared to successful trial data in another injured group, and a control group of participants, using the fractal dimension (FD) method. Three groups of participants attempted a task of eyes closed single limb stance (SLS): twenty-nine participants with acute ankle sprain successfully completed the task on their non-injured limb (successful injury group); twenty eight participants with acute ankle sprain failed their attempt on their injured limb (failed injury group); sixteen participants with no current injury successfully completed the task on their non-dominant limb (successful non-injured group). Between trial analyses of these groups revealed significant differences in COP trajectory FD (successful injury group: 1.58 ± 0.06; failed injury group: 1.54 ± 0.07; successful non-injured group: 1.64 ± 0.06) with a large effect size (0.27). These findings demonstrate that successful eyes-closed SLS is characterized by a larger FD of the COP path when compared to failed trials, and that injury causes a decrease in COP path FD.
      687Scopus© Citations 26
  • Publication
    Inter-joint coordination strategies during unilateral stance 6-months following first-time lateral ankle sprain
    Background: Longitudinal analyses of participants with a history of lateral ankle sprain are lacking. This investigation combined measures of inter-joint coordination and stabilometry to evaluate eyes-open (condition 1) and eyes-closed (condition 2) static unilateral stance performance in a group of participants, 6-months after they sustained an acute, first-time lateral ankle sprain in comparison to a control group. Methods: Sixty-nine participants with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain and 20 non-injured controls completed three 20-second unilateral stance task trials in conditions 1 and 2. An adjusted coefficient of multiple determination statistic was used to compare stance limb 3-dimensional kinematic data for similarity in the aim of establishing patterns of lower-limb inter-joint coordination. The fractal dimension of the stance limb centre of pressure path was also calculated. Findings: Between-group analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb inter-joint coordination strategies for conditions 1 and 2, and in the fractal dimension of the centre-of-pressure path for condition 2 only. Injured participants displayed increases in ankle–hip linked coordination compared to controls in condition 1 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.15 [0.14] vs 0.06 [0.04]; η2 = .19; sagittal/transverse plane: 0.14 [0.11] vs 0.09 [0.05]; η2 = 0.14) and condition 2 (sagittal/frontal plane: 0.15 [0.12] vs 0.08 [0.06]; η2 = 0.23), with an associated decrease in the fractal dimension of the centre-of-pressure path (injured limb: 1.23 [0.13] vs 1.36 [0.13]; η2 = 0.20). Interpretation: Participants with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain exhibit a hip-dominant coordination strategy for static unilateral stance compared to non-injured controls.
      511Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    Evaluating Squat Performance with a Single Inertial Measurement Unit
    Inertial measurement units (IMUs) may be used during exercise performance to assess form and technique. To maximise practicality and minimise cost a single-sensor system is most desirable. This study sought to investigate whether a single lumbar-worn IMU is capable of identifying seven commonly observed squatting deviations. Twenty-two volunteers (18 males, 4 females, age: 26.09±3.98 years, height: 1.75±0.14m, body mass: 75.2±14.2 kg) performed the squat exercise correctly and with 7 induced deviations. IMU signal features were extracted for each condition. Statistical analysis and leave one subject out classifier evaluation were used to assess the ability of a single sensor to evaluate performance. Binary level classification was able to distinguish between correct and incorrect squatting performance with a sensitivity of 64.41%, specificity of 88.01% and accuracy of 80.45%. Multi-label classification was able to distinguish between specific squat deviations with a sensitivity of 59.65%, specificity of 94.84% and accuracy of 56.55%. These results indicate that a single IMU can successfully discriminate between squatting deviations. A larger data set must be collected and more complex classification techniques developed in order to create a more robust exercise analysis IMU-based system.
      1202Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    Postural control strategies during single limb stance following acute lateral ankle sprain
    Single-limb stance is maintained via the integration of visual, vestibular and somatosensory afferents. Musculoskeletal injury challenges the somatosensory system to reweight distorted sensory afferents. This investigation supplements kinetic analysis of eyes-open and eyes-closed single-limb stance tasks with a kinematic profile of lower limb postural orientation in an acute lateral ankle sprain group to assess the adaptive capacity of the sensorimotor system to injury. Sixty-six participants with first-time acute lateral ankle sprain completed a 20-second eyes-open single-limb stance task on their injured and non-injured limbs (task 1). Twenty-three of these participants successfully completed the same 20-second single-limb stance task with their eyes closed (task 2). A non-injured control group of 19 participants completed task 1, with 16 completing task 2. 3-dimensional kinematics of the hip, knee and ankle joints, as well as associated fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path were determined for each limb during these tasks. Between trial analyses revealed significant differences in stance limb kinematics and fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path for task 2 only. The control group bilaterally assumed a position of greater hip flexion compared to injured participants on their side-matched “involved”(7.41 [6.1°] vs 1.44 [4.8]°; η2 = .34) and “uninvolved” (9.59 [8.5°] vs 2.16 [5.6°]; η2 = .31) limbs, with a greater fractal dimension of the center-of-pressure path (involved limb = 1.39 [0.16°] vs 1.25 [0.14°]; uninvolved limb = 1.37 [0.21°] vs 1.23 [0.14°]). Bilateral impairment in postural control strategies present following a first time acute lateral ankle sprain.
      804Scopus© Citations 40
  • Publication
    Technology in Rehabilitation: Evaluating the Single Leg Squat Exercise with Wearable Inertial Measurement Units
    Background: The single leg squat (SLS) is a common lower limb rehabilitation exercise. It is also frequently used as an evaluative exercise to screen for an increased risk of lower limb injury. To date athlete / patient SLS technique has been assessed using expensive laboratory equipment or subjective clinical judgement; both of which are not without shortcomings. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) may offer a low cost solution for the objective evaluation of athlete / patient SLS technique. Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine if in combination or in isolation IMUs positioned on the lumbar spine, thigh and shank are capable of: (a) distinguishing between acceptable and aberrant SLS technique; (b) identifying specific deviations from acceptable SLS technique. Methods: Eighty-three healthy volunteers participated (60 males, 23 females, age: 24.68 + / − 4.91 years, height: 1.75 + / − 0.09 m, body mass: 76.01 + / − 13.29 kg). All participants performed 10 SLSs on their left leg. IMUs were positioned on participants’ lumbar spine, left shank and left thigh. These were utilized to record tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data during all repetitions of the SLS. SLS technique was labelled by a Chartered Physiotherapist using an evaluation framework. Features were extracted from the labelled sensor data. These features were used to train and evaluate a variety of random-forests classifiers that assessed SLS technique. Results: A three IMU system was moderately successful in detecting the overall quality of SLS performance (77 % accuracy, 77 % sensitivity and 78 % specificity). A single IMU worn on the shank can complete the same analysis with 76 % accuracy, 75 % sensitivity and 76 % specificity. Single sensors also produce competitive classification scores relative to multi-sensor systems in identifying specific deviations from acceptable SLS technique. Conclusions: A single IMU positioned on the shank can differentiate between acceptable and aberrant SLS technique with moderate levels of accuracy. It can also capably identify specific deviations from optimal SLS performance. IMUs may offer a low cost solution for the objective evaluation of SLS performance. Additionally, the classifiers described may provide useful input to an exercise biofeedback application.
      874Scopus© Citations 35