Now showing 1 - 10 of 22
  • Publication
    Evaluating the Green Credentials of Flow Chemistry towards Industrial Applications
    Continuous flow chemistry is becoming an established technology platform that finds frequent application in industrial chemical manufacture with support and endorsements by the FDA for pharmaceuticals. Amongst the various advantages that are commonly cited for flow chemistry over batch processing, sustainability continues to require further advances and joint efforts by chemists and chemical engineers in both academia and industry. This short review highlights developments between 2015 and early 2021 that positively impact on the green credentials associated with flow chemistry, specifically when applied to the preparation of pharmaceuticals. An industrial perspective on current challenges is provided to whet discussion and stimulate further investment towards achieving greener modern synthetic technologies.
      93Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    Tandem Continuous Flow Curtius Rearrangement and Subsequent Enzyme-Mediated Impurity Tagging
    The use of continuous flow as an enabling technology within the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries continues to gain momentum. The associated safety benefits with flow for handling of hazardous or highly reactive intermediates are often exploited to offer industrially relevant and scalable Curtius rearrangements. However, in many cases the Curtius rearrangement requires excess nucleophile for the reaction to proceed to high conversions. This can complicate work procedures to deliver high-purity products. However, tandem processing and coupling of the Curtius rearrangement with an immobilized enzyme can elegantly facilitate chemoselective tagging of the residual reagent, resulting in a facile purification process under continuous flow.
      55Scopus© Citations 10
  • Publication
    Continuous flow synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of NHC* silver carboxylate derivatives of SBC3 in vitro and in vivo
    N-heterocyclic silver carbene compounds have been extensively studied and shown to be active agents against a host of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. By incorporating hypothesized virulence targeting substituents into NHC–silver systems via salt metathesis, an atom-efficient complexation process can be used to develop new complexes to target the passive and active systems of a microbial cell. The incorporation of fatty acids and an FtsZ inhibitor have been achieved, and creation of both the intermediate salt and subsequent silver complex has been streamlined into a continuous flow process. Biological evaluation was conducted with in vitro toxicology assays showing these novel complexes had excellent inhibition against Gram-negative strains E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae; further studies also confirmed the ability to inhibit biofilm formation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and C. Parapsilosis. In vivo testing using a murine thigh infection model showed promising inhibition of MRSA for the lead compound SBC3, which is derived from 1,3-dibenzyl-4,5-diphenylimidazol-2-ylidene (NHC*).
      68Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    A continuous flow synthesis of [1.1.1]propellane and bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane derivatives
    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021-03-21) ;
    A continuous flow process to generate [1.1.1]propellane on demand is presented rendering solutions of [1.1.1]propellane that can directly be derivatised into various bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane (BCP) species. This was realised in throughputs up to 8.5 mmol h-1providing an attractive and straightforward access to gram quantities of selected BCP building blocks. Lastly, a continuous photochemical transformation of [1.1.1]propellane into valuable BCPs bearing mixed ester/acyl chloride moieties was developed.
      71Scopus© Citations 20
  • Publication
    Functional Group Interconversion Reactions in Continuous Flow Reactors
    An overview of the current uptake of continuous flow techniques for various functional group interconversion reactions is presented. Besides highlighting a variety of prominent examples and their main features, this review provides insights into specific reaction classes, such as oxidations, reductions, rearrangements as well as different C-H functionalization processes. While this review can only include key examples from the last decade, the reader will find a solid foundation of important transformations along with further references to inform and appreciate the opportunities arising from modern synthesis technologies such as flow synthesis.
      162Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Development of a Continuous Photochemical Benzyne-Forming Process
    A continuous-flow process is presented that enables the safe generation and derivatization of benzyne under photochemical conditions. This is facilitated by a new high-power LED lamp emitting light at 365 nm. The resulting flow process effectively controls the release of gaseous by-products based on an adjustable backpressure regulator and delivers a series of heterocyclic products in a short residence time of 3 minutes. The robustness of this methodology is demonstrated for the rapid generation of benzotriazoles, 2 H -indazoles and various furan-derived adducts, facilitating the preparation of these important heterocyclic scaffolds via a simple and readily scalable flow protocol.
      54Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    A Scalable Continuous Photochemical Process for the Generation of Aminopropylsulfones
    (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020-09-18) ; ;
    An efficient continuous photochemical process is presented that delivers a series of novel γ-aminopropylsulfones via a tetrabutylammonium decatungstate (TBADT) catalysed HAT-process. Crucial to this success is the exploitation of a new high-power LED emitting at 365 nm that was found to be superior to an alternative medium-pressure Hg lamp. The resulting flow process enabled the scale-up of this transformation reaching throughputs of 20 mmol h−1 at substrate concentrations up to 500 mM. Additionally, the substrate scope of this transformation was evaluated demonstrating the straightforward incorporation of different amine substituents as well as alkyl appendages next to the sulfone moiety. It is anticipated that this methodology will allow for further exploitations of these underrepresented γ-aminopropylsulfone scaffolds in the future.
      282Scopus© Citations 16
  • Publication
    Overcoming the Hurdles and Challenges Associated with Developing Continuous Industrial Processes
    Continuous flow chemistry is often viewed as a very simple concept on paper, however scientists with significant flow chemistry experience will highlight a number of challenges that need to be overcome. Critical for the successful development of any flow process is a high level of understanding of potential pitfalls that may be encountered. A collaborative and multi-disciplinary team of chemists and chemical engineers is essential in the development of a process from lab scale through to production. This Minireview will identify and highlight relevant risks and their subsequent mitigation strategies to ensure successful flow processing.
      35Scopus© Citations 33
  • Publication
    Scalability of photochemical reactions in continuous flow mode
    (Springer, 2021-05-17) ;
    Continuous flow photochemistry as a field has witnessed an increasing popularity over the last decade in both academia and industry. Key drivers for this development are safety, practicality as well as the ability to rapidly access complex chemical structures. Continuous flow reactors, whether home-built or from commercial suppliers, additionally allow for creating valuable target compounds in a reproducible and automatable manner. Recent years have furthermore seen the advent of new energy efficient LED lamps that in combination with innovative reactor designs provide a powerful means to increasing both the practicality and productivity of modern photochemical flow reactors. In this review article we wish to highlight key achievements pertaining to the scalability of such continuous photochemical processes. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
      66Scopus© Citations 85
  • Publication
    Synthesis of Bioderived Cinnolines and Their Flow-Based Conversion into 1,4-Dihydrocinnoline Derivatives
    Starting from phenylhydrazine and glucose, a versatile cinnoline scaffold was obtained on a multigram scale and further derivatized. A simple continuous-flow hydrogenation process permits the conversion of selected cinnolines into their 1,4-dihydrocinnoline counterparts. These products are generated in high yields and high purities with residence times of less than one minute and, along with their cinnoline precursors, are expected to serve as valuable heterocyclic building blocks for future medicinal chemistry programs.
      216Scopus© Citations 5