Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Investigation of the force associated with the formation of lacerations and skull fractures
    (Springer-Verlag, 2011-08-06) ; ; ;
    Post mortem examination is often relied upon in order to determine whether a suspicious death was natural, accidental, suicidal or homicidal. However, in many cases the mechanism by which a single injury has been inflicted cannot be determined with certainty based on pathological examination alone. Furthermore the current method of assessing applied force relating to injury is restricted to an arbitrary and subjective scale (mild, moderate, considerable, or severe). This study investigates the pathophysiological nature of head injuries caused by blunt force trauma, specifically in relation to the incidence and formation of a laceration. An experimental model was devised to assess the force required to cause damage to the scalp and underlying skull of porcine specimens following a single frontoparietal impact. This was achieved using a drop tower equipped with adapted instrumentation for data acquisition. The applied force and implement used could be correlated with resultant injuries and as such aid pathological investigation in the differentiation between falls and blows. Experimentation revealed prevalent patterns of injury specific to the reconstructed mechanism involved. It was found that the minimum force for the occurrence of a laceration was 4000 N.
      838Scopus© Citations 36
  • Publication
    Toward a Predictive Assessment of Stab-Penetration Forces
    (Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer) - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014-04) ; ; ;
    Collaborative research between the disciplines of forensic pathology and biomechanics was undertaken to investigate the hyperelastic properties of human skin, to determine the force required for sharp instrument penetration of skin, and to develop a finite element model, which reflects the mechanisms of sharp instrument penetration. These studies have led to the development of a "stab metric," based on simulations, to describe the force magnitudes in stabbing incidents. Such a metric should, in time, replace the crudely quantitative descriptors of stabbing forces currently used by forensic pathologists.
      347Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    Towards a predictive assessment of stab-penetration forces
    Collaborative research between the disciplines of forensic pathology and biomechanics was undertaken to investigate the hyperelastic properties of human skin, to determine the force required for sharp instrument penetration of skin, and to develop a finite element model, which reflects the mechanisms of sharp instrument penetration. These studies have led to the development of a 'stab metric', based on simulations, to describe the force magnitudes in stabbing incidents. Such a metric should, in time, replace the crudely quantitative descriptors of stabbing forces currently used by forensic pathologists.
      479Scopus© Citations 11
  • Publication
    A combined experimental and numerical study of stab-penetration forces
    The magnitude of force used in a stabbing incident can be difficult to quantify, although the estimate given by forensic pathologists is often seen as 'critical' evidence in medico-legal situations. The main objective of this study is to develop a quantitative measure of the force associated with a knife stabbing biological tissue, using a combined experimental and numerical technique. A series of stab-penetration tests were performed to quantify the force required for a blade to penetrate skin at various speeds and using different 'sharp' instruments. A computational model of blade penetration was developed using ABAQUS/EXPLICIT, a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) commercial package. This model, which incorporated element deletion along with a suitable failure criterion, is capable of systematically quantifying the effect of the many variables affecting a stab event. This quantitative data could, in time, lead to the development of a predictive model that could help indicate the level of force used in a particular stabbing incident.
      806Scopus© Citations 36