Now showing 1 - 10 of 16
  • Publication
    Environmental indicators for the urban environment : a literature review
    (University College Dublin. School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy, 2000) ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
    A vast body of literature exists on the genesis and evolution of environmental indicators of all varieties. This document attempts to track the somewhat complicated progress of urban environmental indicators, where they are in usage and to what avail. It also emphasises the search to narrow down the range of 'ideal' indicators. The literature suggests that as experience and practice with indicators grows both in Ireland and world-wide the key set of urban environmental indicators can help policy makers and the public track sustainability issues more effectively. Indicators thus have a valuable role to play in the future of sustainable planning for urban areas.
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    Effectiveness of fiscal and other measures to manage greenhouse gas emissions from the automobile sector : evidence from Europe
    (University College Dublin. Department of Planning and Environmental Policy, 2006-05) ; ;
    This paper models annual new car average CO2 emissions intensity in EU Member States over the period 1995-2004. It attempts to explore the relationship, if any, between national vehicle and fuel taxes and the EU voluntary agreement in reducing CO2 emissions from the passenger car fleet. Our results indicate that (i) vehicle taxes are likely to be significant in reducing CO2 emissions intensity of passenger cars, and that (ii) the CO2 emissions intensity of EU new passenger cars has fallen over the time period studied. We hypothesise that this time trend may be attributable to the voluntary agreement.
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    Assessing the European Union emissions trading directive
    (Asociación Española de Economía Agraria, 2003) ; ; ;
    The Emissions Trading scheme now (January 2003) in prospect in the European Union is likely to be the first trans-national greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world. With the participation of the European Economic Area [EEA] countries and with the forthcoming EU enlargement, 30 countries could be involved in this scheme by 2012. Under European Union law, the European Commission is responsible for making proposals, which are then decided upon by the Council of Ministers - on a 'qualified majority' basis in this case - representing the 15 Member State governments, and the European Parliament. In the case of this Directive, the Commission prepared its initial proposals, which have then been scrutinised by the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. The objective of this work is to provide an assessment of the EU Emissions Trading Directive as agreed by the Council of Ministers. The agreement was reached looking at both, the characteristics and potential of this scheme. For some of the issues, there is theory and evidence to support the case made. For others, the absence of evidence means that intuition is called upon.
  • Publication
    The use and regulation of environmental claims as a means for promoting sustainable consumption in Ireland : final report
    (Environmental Protection Agency, 2007) ; ;
    This study consists of an initial evaluation of the use and regulation of [environmental] claims in Ireland, in order to identify how they may be most effectively used to promote sustainable consumption. This final Report has been prepared as part of the Environmental Research Technological Development and Innovation Programme under the Productive Sector Operational Programme 2000–2006.
  • Publication
    Stimulating the use of biofuels in the European Union : implications for climate change policy
    (University College Dublin. Department of Planning and Environmental Policy, 2004-12) ; ;
    The substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels has been proposed in the European Union (EU) as part of a strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from road transport, increase security of energy supply and support development of rural communities. In this paper, we examine this opportunity, by focusing on one of these purported benefits, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The cost of subsidising the price difference between European biofuels and fossil fuels per tonne of CO2 emissions saved is estimated to be €174-269. Without including the benefits from increased security of energy supply and employment generation in rural areas, the current costs of implementing biofuel targets are high compared with other available CO2 mitigation strategies, including biofuel imports. The policy instrument of foregoing some or all of the excise and other duties now applicable on transport fuels in EU15, as well as the potential to import low cost alternatives, mainly from Brazil, are addressed in this context.
  • Publication
    Abatement and allocation in the pilot phase of the EU ETS
    (Irish Economic Association, 2009-04) ; ;
    We use historical industrial emissions data to assess the level of abatement and overallocation that took place across European countries during the pilot phase (2005-2007) of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. Using a dynamic panel data model, we estimate the counterfactual (business-as-usual) emissions scenario for EU member states. Comparing this baseline to allocated and verified emissions, we conclude that both overallocation and abatement occurred, along with under-allocation and emissions inflation. Over the three trading years of the pilot phase we find over-allocation of approximately 376 million EUAs (6%) and total abatement at the member state level of 107 Mt CO2 (1.8%). However, due to over-allocation and possible uncertainty about future allocation methodologies, we calculate that emissions inflation of approximately 119 Mt CO2 (2%) occurred, resulting in emissions over the pilot phase being approximately 12 Mt CO2 (0.2%) higher than they would have been in the absence of the EU ETS.
  • Publication
    Greenhouse gas abatement costs and market based instruments
    (University College Dublin. Department of Planning and Environmental Policy, 2004-04) ;
    For policy intervention to be effective, we need to know where such intervention is likely to have most effect. There is literature emerging on this from a variety of sources. This paper synthesises some of this information as well as looking at the literature on policy interaction in seeking the least cost abatement options. The first section assesses the latest European Commission report which examines a least-cost route for the EU Member States, and then examines the latest IPCC Mitigation report and work done by Ellerman and Decaux (1998) in examining marginal abatement curves. The abatement cost analyses that have been undertaken do provide broad guidelines as to where the least cost (more economically efficient) opportunities for abatement lie, and this is a crucial step in ensuring that economic resources are not wasted. Interestingly, abatement of the non CO2 gasses, notably methane and nitrous oxide, emerge in many studies as relatively low cost options.
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  • Publication
    Transaction costs of firms in the EU ETS
    (Irish Economic Association, 2009-04) ; ;
    This paper is a first attempt to empirically measure transaction costs – a composite of administrative costs and trading costs – of firms in the European Union's CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) during its trial phase (2005-2007). This analysis provides some evidence that transaction costs of firms were mainly of administrative nature. There are also remarkable economies of scale, with the costs per tonne of CO2 lower for participants with larger allocation. The composition of these costs diverges too as the share of early implementation costs tend to be significantly larger emitters. Trading transaction costs were not significant and, hence, trade prohibitive and other factors – self-sufficiency in compliance and low allowance price – played a major role in deciding whether to trade or not during the trial trading period.