Now showing 1 - 2 of 2
  • Publication
    Update on the presence of Ixodes ricinus at the western limit of its range and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato
    It is often suggested that due to climate and environmental policy changes, the risk from tick-borne disease is increasing, particularly at the geographical limits of the vector distribution. Our project aimed to determine whether this was true for the risk of Lyme borreliosis in Ireland which is the western-most limit of Ixodes ricinus, the European vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The availability of a historical data set of tick infection rates compiled in the 1990s represented a unique opportunity as it provided a baseline against which current data could be compared. Following construction of a spatial predictive model for the presence and absence of I. ricinus based on data from 491 GPS locations visited between 2016 and 2019, 1404 questing nymphs from 27 sites were screened for the presence of Borrelia spp. using a TaqMan PCR aimed at the 23S rRNA gene sequence. All positive ticks were further analysed by nested PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 5 S–23 S intergenic spacer. The model indicated that areas with the highest probability of tick presence were mostly located along the western seaboard and the Shannon and Erne river catchments, coinciding with historical high incidence areas of bovine babesiosis, while the infection rate of questing nymphs with B. burgdorferi s.l. and the prevalence of the various genospecies have remained surprisingly stable over the last 3 decades. Clear communication of the potential disease risk arising from a tick bite is essential in order to allay undue concerns over tick-borne diseases among the general public.
      225Scopus© Citations 12
  • Publication
    Characterization of the Th Profile of the Bovine Endometrium during the Oestrous Cycle and Early Pregnancy
    Despite extensive research in the area of cow fertility, the extent to which the maternal immune system is modulated during pregnancy in cattle remains unclear. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to characterize the presence and response profile of B, T-helper (LTh), T- cytotoxic (LTc), gamma delta-T (γδT) and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes in terms of cell number, distribution and cytokine expression in bovine endometrial tissue to pregnancy. Endometrial tissue samples were collected from beef heifers on Days 5, 7, 13 and 16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Samples were analysed by immunofluorescence to identify the presence and abundance of B-B7 (B-cells), CD4 (LTh), CD8 (LTc), γδT cell receptor (TCR) and CD335/NKp46 (NK cells) -positive immune cells. Quantitative real time PCR (QPCR) was carried out to analyse mRNA relative abundance of FOXP3 (a marker of regulatory T (Treg) cells) and a panel of immune factors, including MHC-I, LIF, Interleukins 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11,12A, IFNa and IFNG. Results indicate that B-B7+ cells are quite populous in bovine endometrial tissue, CD4+ and CD8+ -cells are present in moderate numbers and γδTCR+ and CD335+ cells are present in low numbers. Pregnancy affected the total number and distribution pattern of the NK cell population, with the most significant variation observed on Day 16 of pregnancy. Neither B lymphocytes nor T lymphocyte subsets were regulated temporally during the oestrous cycle or by pregnancy prior to implantation. mRNA transcript abundance of the immune factors LIF, IL1b, IL8 and IL12A, IFNa and IFNG, expression was regulated temporally during the estrous cycle and LIF, IL1b, IL-10, IL11, IL12A were also temporally regulated during pregnancy. In conclusion, the endometrial immune profile of the oestrous cycle favours a Th2 environment in anticipation of pregnancy and the presence of an embryo acts to fine tune this environment.
      275Scopus© Citations 58