Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Publication
    Effects of surfactant-based permeation enhancers on mannitol permeability, histology, and electrogenic ion transport responses in excised rat colonic mucosae
    Surfactant-based intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are constituents of several oral macromolecule formulations in clinical trials. This study examined the interaction of a test panel of surfactant-based-PEs with isolated rat colonic mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers in an attempt to determine if increases in transepithelial permeability can be separated from induction of mucosal perturbation. The aim was to establish assess if increases in permeability (i) intestinal permeability (the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [14C]-mannitol), (ii) epithelial histology, and (iii) short-circuit current (ΔIsc) responses to a cholinomimetic (carbachol, CCh). Enhancement ratio increases for Papp values followed the order: C10 > C9 = C11:1 > a bile salt blend > sodium choleate > sucrose laurate > Labrasol® >C12E8 > C12 > Cremophor® A25 > C7 > sucrose stearate > Kolliphor® HS15 > Kolliphor® TPGS. Exposures that increased the Papp by ≥2-fold over 120 min were accompanied by histological damage in 94% of tissues, and by a decreased ΔIsc response to CCh of 83%. A degree of separation between the increased Papp of [14C]-mannitol, histological damage, and diminution of the ΔIsc response to CCh was observed at selected PE concentrations (e.g. Labrasol® at 2 mg/mL). Overall, this surfactant-based PE selection caused transcellular perturbation at similar concentrations to those that enhanced permeability.
      823Scopus© Citations 34
  • Publication
    Labrasol® is an efficacious intestinal permeation enhancer across rat intestine: Ex vivo and in vivo rat studies
    Labrasol® ALF (Labrasol®), is a non-ionic surfactant excipient primarily used as a solubilising agent. It was investigated here as an intestinal permeation enhancer in isolated rat colonic mucosae in Ussing chamber and in rat in situ intestinal instillations. Labrasol® comprises mono-, di- and triglycerides and mono- and di- fatty acid esters of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8 and free PEG-8, with caprylic (C8)- and capric acid (C10) as the main fatty acids. Source components of Labrasol® as well as Labrasol® modified with either C8 or C10 as the sole fatty acid components were also tested to determine which element of Labrasol® was responsible for its permeability-enhancing properties. Labrasol® (4, 8 mg/ml) enhanced the transport of the paracellular markers, [14C] mannitol, FITC-dextran 4000, and FITC-insulin across colonic mucosae. The enhancement was non-damaging, transient, and molecular weight-dependent. The PEG ester fraction of Labrasol® also had enhancing properties. When insulin was administered with Labrasol® in instillations, it had a relative bioavailability of 7% in jejunum and 12% in colon. C8- and C10 versions of Labrasol® and the PEG ester fraction also induced similar bioavailability values in jejunal instillations: 6, 5 and 7% respectively. Inhibition of lipases in instillations did not reduce the efficacy of Labrasol®, suggesting that its mechanism as a PE is not simply due to liberated medium chain fatty acids. Labrasol® acts as an efficacious intestinal permeation enhancer and has potential for use in oral formulations of macromolecules and BCS Class III molecules.
      755Scopus© Citations 77
  • Publication
    Safety concerns over the use of intestinal permeation enhancers: A mini-review
    Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are key components in ∼12 oral peptide formulations in clinical trials for a range of molecules, primarily insulin and glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs. The main PEs comprise medium chain fatty acid-based systems (sodium caprate, sodium caprylate, and N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC)), bile salts, acyl carnitines, and EDTA. Their mechanism of action is complex with subtle differences between the different molecules. With the exception of SNAC and EDTA, most PEs fluidize the plasma membrane causing plasma membrane perturbation, as well as enzymatic and intracellular mediator changes that lead to alteration of intestinal epithelial tight junction protein expression. The question arises as to whether PEs can cause irreversible epithelial damage and tight junction openings sufficient to permit co-absorption of payloads with bystander pathogens, lipopolysaccharides and its fragment, or exo- and endotoxins that may be associated with sepsis, inflammation and autoimmune conditions. Most PEs seem to cause membrane perturbation to varying extents that is rapidly reversible, and overall evidence of pathogen co-absorption is generally lacking. It is unknown however, whether the intestinal epithelial damage-repair cycle is sustained during repeat-dosing regimens for chronic therapy.
    Scopus© Citations 100  353
  • Publication
    Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of insulin-loaded whey beads as an oral peptide delivery system
    For many diabetics, daily, lifelong insulin injections are required to effectively manage blood glucose levels and the complications associated with the disease. This can be a burden and reduces patient quality of life. Our goal was to develop a more convenient oral delivery system that may be suitable for insulin and other peptides. Insulin was entrapped in 1.5-mm beads made from denatured whey protein isolate (dWPI) using gelation. Beads were then air-dried with fumed silica, Aerosil®. The encapsulation efficiency was ~61% and the insulin loading was ~25 µg/mg. Dissolution in simulated gastric-, and simulated intestinal fluids (SGF, SIF) showed that ~50% of the insulin was released from beads in SGF, followed by an additional ~10% release in SIF. The omission of Aerosil® allowed greater insulin release, suggesting that it formed a barrier on the bead surface. Circular dichroism analysis of bead-released insulin revealed an unaltered secondary structure, and insulin bioactivity was retained in HepG2 cells transfected to assess activation of the endogenous insulin receptors. Insulin-entrapped beads were found to provide partial protection against pancre-atin for at least 60 min. A prototype bead construct was then synthesised using an encapsulator system and tested in vivo using a rat intestinal instillation bioassay. It was found that 50 IU/kg of entrapped insulin reduced plasma glucose levels by 55% in 60 min, similar to that induced by sub-cutaneously (s.c.)-administered insulin (1 IU/kg). The instilled insulin-entrapped beads produced a relative bioavailability of 2.2%. In conclusion, when optimised, dWPI-based beads may have potential as an oral peptide delivery system.
      37Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Barriers to the Intestinal Absorption of Four Insulin-Loaded Arginine-Rich Nanoparticles in Human and Rat
    Peptide drugs and biologics provide opportunities for treatments of many diseases. However, due to their poor stability and permeability in the gastrointestinal tract, the oral bioavailability of peptide drugs is negligible. Nanoparticle formulations have been proposed to circumvent these hurdles, but systemic exposure of orally administered peptide drugs has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of four insulin-loaded arginine-rich nanoparticles displaying differing composition and surface characteristics, developed within the pan-European consortium TRANS-INT. The transport mechanisms and major barriers to nanoparticle permeability were investigated in freshly isolated human jejunal tissue. Cytokine release profiles and standard toxicity markers indicated that the nanoparticles were nontoxic. Three out of four nanoparticles displayed pronounced binding to the mucus layer and did not reach the epithelium. One nanoparticle composed of a mucus inert shell and cell-penetrating octarginine (ENCP), showed significant uptake by the intestinal epithelium corresponding to 28 ± 9% of the administered nanoparticle dose, as determined by super-resolution microscopy. Only a small fraction of nanoparticles taken up by epithelia went on to be transcytosed via a dynamin-dependent process. In situ studies in intact rat jejunal loops confirmed the results from human tissue regarding mucus binding, epithelial uptake, and negligible insulin bioavailability. In conclusion, while none of the four arginine-rich nanoparticles supported systemic insulin delivery, ENCP displayed a consistently high uptake along the intestinal villi. It is proposed that ENCP should be further investigated for local delivery of therapeutics to the intestinal mucosa.
      40Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Evaluation of Sucrose Laurate as an Intestinal Permeation Enhancer for Macromolecules: Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies
    Oral delivery of macromolecules requires permeation enhancers (PEs) adaptable to formulation. Sucrose laurate (SL) (D1216), a food grade surfactant, was assessed in Caco-2 monolayers, isolated rat intestinal tissue mucosae, and rat intestinal instillations. Accordingly, 1 mM SL increased the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of [14C]-mannitol and reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) across monolayers. It altered expression of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, increased plasma membrane potential, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in Caco-2 cells. The concentrations that increased flux were of the same order as those that induced cytotoxicity. In rat colonic tissue mucosae, the same patterns emerged in respect to the concentration-dependent increases in paracellular marker fluxes and TEER reductions with 5 mM being the key concentration. While the histology revealed some perturbation, ion transport capacity was retained. In rat jejunal and colonic instillations, 50 and 100 mM SL co-administered with insulin induced blood glucose reductions and achieved relative bioavailability values of 2.4% and 8.9%, respectively, on a par with the gold standard PE, sodium caprate (C10). The histology of the intestinal loops revealed little damage. In conclusion, SL is a candidate PE with high potential for emulsion-based systems. The primary action is plasma membrane perturbation, leading to tight junction openings and a predominant paracellular flux.
      249Scopus© Citations 32
  • Publication
    An Enteric-Coated Polyelectrolyte Nanocomplex Delivers Insulin in Rat Intestinal Instillations when Combined with a Permeation Enhancer
    The use of nanocarriers is being researched to achieve oral peptide delivery. Insulin-associated anionic polyelectrolyte nanoparticle complexes (PECs) were formed that comprised hyaluronic acid and chitosan in an optimum mass mixing ratio of 5:1 (MR 5), followed by coating with a pH-dependent polymer. Free insulin was separated from PECs by size exclusion chromatography and then measured by HPLC. The association efficiency of insulin in PECs was >95% and the loading was ~83 µg/mg particles. Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis of PECs revealed low polydispersity, a negative zeta potential range of −40 to −50 mV, and a diameter range of 95–200 nm. Dissolution studies in simulated small intestinal fluid (FaSSIF-V2) revealed that the PECs were colloidally stable. PECs that were coated with Eudragit® L-100 delayed insulin release in FaSSIF-V2 and protected insulin against pancreatin attack more than uncoated PECs. Uncoated anionic PECs interacted weakly with mucin in vitro and were non-cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells. The coated and uncoated PECs, both concentrated further by ultrafiltration, permitted dosing of 50 IU/kg in rat jejunal instillations, but they failed to reduce plasma glucose or deliver insulin to the blood. When ad-mixed with the permeation enhancer (PE), sucrose laurate (100 mM), the physicochemical parameters of coated PECs were relatively unchanged, however blood glucose was reduced by 70%. In conclusion, the use of a PE allowed for the PEC-released bioactive insulin to permeate the jejunum. This has implications for the design of orally delivered particles that can release the payload when formulated with enhancers.
      182Scopus© Citations 19
  • Publication
    Physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of amphiphilic cyclodextrin-based nanoparticles designed to enhance intestinal delivery of insulin
    Due to excellent efficacy, low toxicity, and well-defined selectivity, development of new injectable peptides is increasing. However, the translation of these drugs into products for effective oral delivery has been restricted due to poor oral bioavailability. Nanoparticle (NP) formulations have potential to overcome the barriers to oral peptide delivery through protecting the payload and increasing bioavailability. This study describes the rational design, optimization and evaluation of a cyclodextrin-based NP entrapping insulin glulisine for intestinal administration. A cationic amphiphilic cyclodextrin (click propyl-amine cyclodextrin (CD)) was selected as the primary complexing agent for NP development. Following NP synthesis, in vitro characterization was performed. The insulin glulisine NPs exhibited an average size of 109 ± 9 nm, low polydispersity index (0.272) negative zeta potential (−25 ± 3 mV), high association efficiency (71.4 ± 3.37%) and an insulin loading of 10.2%. In addition, the NPs exhibited colloidal stability in intestinal-biorelevant media (SIF, supplemented-SIF 1% (w/v) and FaSSIF-V2) for up to 4 h. Proteolysis studies indicated that the NPs conferred protection to the entrapped insulin relative to free insulin. In vivo rat jejunal instillation studies demonstrated that the NPs mediated systemic insulin absorption, accompanied by a decrease in blood glucose levels. The relative bioavailability of the instilled insulin (50 IU/kg) from the NP was 5.5% compared to subcutaneous administration of insulin solution (1 IU/kg). The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data indicate that this cyclodextrin-based formulation may have potential for further research as an oral insulin dosage form.
      780Scopus© Citations 48
  • Publication
    Impact of PEGylation on an antibody-loaded nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease
    Nanoparticle-based oral drug delivery systems have the potential to target inflamed regions in the gastrointestinal tract by specifically accumulating at disrupted colonic epithelium. But, delivery of intact protein drugs at the targeted site is a major challenge due to the harsh gastrointestinal environment and the protective mucus layer. Biocompatible nanoparticles engineered to target the inflamed colonic tissue and efficiently penetrate the mucosal layer can provide a promising approach for orally delivering monoclonal antibodies to treat inflammatory bowel disease. The study aims to develop mucus-penetrating nanoparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) polymers with two different polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain lengths (2 kDa and 5kDa) to encapsulate monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The impact of different PEG chain lengths on the efficacy of the nanosystems was evaluated in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Both PLGA-PEG2k and PLGA-PEG5k nanoparticles successfully encapsulated the antibody and significantly reduced TNF-α secretion from activated macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells. However, only antibody-loaded PLGA-PEG2k nanoparticles were able to alleviate the experimental acute colitis in mice demonstrated by improved colon weight/length ratio, histological score, and reduced tissue-associated myeloperoxidase activity and expression of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α levels compared with the control group. The results suggest that despite having no significant differences in the in vitro cell-based assays, PEG chain length has a significant impact on the in vivo performance of the mucus penetrating nanoparticles. Overall, PLGA-PEG2k nanoparticles were presented as a promising oral delivery system for targeted antibody delivery to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Statement of significance: There is an unmet therapeutic need for oral drug delivery systems for safe and effective antibody therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, we have developed PEGylated PLGA-based nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for oral targeted delivery of anti-TNF-α antibody as a potential alternative treatment strategy. The PEG chain length did not affect encapsulation efficiency or interaction with mucin in vitro but resulted in differences in in vitro release profile and in vivo efficacy study. We demonstrated the superiority of anti-TNF-α mAb-PLGA-PEG2k over mAb-PLGA-PEG5k nanoparticles to effectively exhibit anti-inflammatory responses in an acute murine colitis model. These nanoparticle-based formulations may be adjusted to encapsulate other drugs that could be applied to a number of disorders at different mucosal surfaces.
      8Scopus© Citations 13