Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Synthesis of a conformationally constrained delta-amino acid building block
    Conformationally restricted amino acids are important components in peptidomimetics and drug design. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a novel, non-proteinogenic constrained delta amino acid containing a cyclobutane ring, cis-3(aminomethyl)cyclobutane carboxylic acid (ACCA). The synthesis of the target amino acid was achieved in seven steps, with the key reaction being a base induced intramolecular nucleophilic substitution. A small library of dipeptides was prepared through the coupling of ACCA with proteinogenic amino acids.
    Scopus© Citations 6  187
  • Publication
    Stereospecific synthesis and catalytic activity of L-histidylidene metal complexes
    We report on the synthesis, metal coordination, and catalytic impact of histidylidene, a histidine-derived N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. The histidinium salt 3, comprising methyl substituents at both heterocyclic nitrogens and protected at the C- and N-terminus of the amino acid, was rhodated and iridated by a transmetallation protocol using Ag2O. Ambient temperature and short reaction times were pivotal for full retention of configuration at the a-carbon. The stereospecificity of the reaction was conveniently probed by P-31 NMR spectroscopy after transmetallation with rhodium(I) and coordination of enantiopure (S)-Ph-binepine. The histidylidene rhodium complexes are highly efficient catalysts for the mild hydrosilylation of ketones. For the cationic complexes [Rh(cod)(histidylidene)(phosphine)](+), lowering the temperature shifted the rate-limiting step of the catalytic reaction to an earlier stage that is not enantioselective. Hence the asymmetric induction-which is governed by the chiral phosphine-did not improve at low temperature.
      514Scopus© Citations 17
  • Publication
    Impact of dynamic sub-populations within grafted chains on the protein binding and colloidal stability of PEGylated nanoparticles
    Polyethylene glycol grafting has played a central role in preparing the surfaces of nano-probes for biological interaction, to extend blood circulation times and to modulate protein recognition and cellular uptake. However, the role of PEG graft dynamics and conformation in determining surface recognition processes is poorly understood primarily due to the absence of a microscopic picture of the surface presentation of the polymer. Here a detailed NMR analysis reveals three types of dynamic ethylene glycol units on PEG-grafted SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) of the type commonly evaluated as long-circulating theranostic nano-probes; a narrow fraction with fast dynamics associated with the chain ends; a broadened fraction spectrally overlapped with the former arising from those parts of the chain experiencing some dynamic restriction; and a fraction too broad to be observed in the spectrum arising from units closer to the surface/graft which undergo slow motion on the NMR timescale. We demonstrate that ethylene glycol units transition between fractions as a function of temperature, core size, PEG chain length and surface coverage and demonstrate how this distribution affects colloidal stability and protein uptake. The implications of the findings for biological application of grafted nanoparticles are discussed in the context of accepted models for surface ligand conformation. This journal is
      11Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Biotransformation of fluorophenyl pyridine carboxylic acids by the model fungus Cunninghamella elegans
    1.Fluorine plays a key role in the design of new drugs and recent FDA approvals included two fluorinated drugs, tedizolid phosphate and vorapaxar, both of which contain the fluorophenyl pyridyl moiety. 2.To investigate the likely phase-I (oxidative) metabolic fate of this group, various fluorinated phenyl pyridine carboxylic acids were incubated with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans, which is an established model of mammalian drug metabolism. 3.19F NMR spectroscopy established the degree of biotransformation, which varied depending on the position of fluorine substitution, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) identified alcohols and hydroxylated carboxylic acids as metabolites. The hydroxylated metabolites were further structurally characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which demonstrated that hydroxylation occurred on the 4′ position; fluorine in that position blocked the hydroxylation. 4.The fluorophenyl pyridine carboxylic acids were not biotransformed by rat liver microsomes and this was a consequence of inhibitory action, and thus, the fungal model was crucial in obtaining metabolites to establish the mechanism of catabolism.
      335Scopus© Citations 10