Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Biosynthesis of Deoxyamphotericins and Deoxyamphoteronolides by Engineered Strains of Streptomyces nodosus
    Amphotericin B is an antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus. During biosynthesis of amphotericin, the macrolactone core undergoes three modifications: oxidation of a methyl branch to a carboxyl group, mycosaminylation, and hydroxylation. Gene disruption was undertaken to block two of these modifications. Initial experiments targeted the amphDIII gene, which encodes a GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase involved in biosynthesis of mycosamine. Analysis of products by mass spectrometry and NMR indicated that the amphDIII mutant produced 8-deoxyamphoteronolides A and B. This suggests that glycosylation with mycosamine normally precedes C-8 hydroxylation and that formation of the exocyclic carboxyl group can occur prior to both these modifications. Inactivation of the amphL cytochrome P450 gene led to production of novel polyenes with masses appropriate for 8-deoxyamphotericins A and B. These compounds retained antifungal activity and may be useful new antibiotics.
      383Scopus© Citations 64
  • Publication
    Biosynthesis of amphotericin derivatives lacking exocyclic carboxyl groups
    Amphotericin B is a medically important antifungal antibiotic that is also active against human immunodeficiency virus, Leishmania parasites, and prion diseases. The therapeutic use of amphotericin B is restricted by severe side effects that can be moderated by liposomal formulation or structural alteration. Chemical modification has shown that suppression of charge on the exocyclic carboxyl group of amphotericin B substantially reduces toxicity. We report targeted deletions of the amphN cytochrome P450 gene from the chromosome of the amphotericin-producing bacterium Streptomyces nodosus. The mutant strains produced amphotericin analogues in which methyl groups replace the exocyclic carboxyl groups. These compounds retained antifungal activity and had reduced hemolytic activity.
      358Scopus© Citations 102
  • Publication
    Analysis and manipulation of amphotericin biosynthetic genes by means of modified phage KC515 transduction techniques
    Amphotericin B is a medically important antifungal antibiotic that is produced by Streptomyces nodosus. Genetic manipulation of this organism has led to production of the first amphotericin analogues by engineered biosynthesis. Here, these studies were extended by sequencing the chromosomal regions flanking the amphotericin polyketide synthase genes, and by refining the phage KC515 transduction method for disruption and replacement of S. nodosus genes. A hybrid vector was constructed from KC515 DNA and the Escherichia coli plasmid pACYC177. This vector replicated as a plasmid in E. coli and the purified DNA yielded phage plaques on Streptomyces lividans after polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transfection of protoplasts. The left flank of the amphotericin gene cluster was found to include amphRI, RII, RIII and RIV genes that are similar to regulatory genes in other polyene biosynthetic gene clusters. One of these regulatory genes, amphRI, was found to have a homologue, amphRVI, located in the right flank at a distance of 127 kbp along the chromosome. However, disruption of amphRVI using the hybrid vector had no effect on the yield of amphotericin obtained from cultures grown on production medium. The hybrid vector was also used for precise deletion of the DNA coding for two modules of the AmphC polyketide synthase protein. Analysis by UV spectrophotometry revealed that the deletion mutant produced a novel pentaene, with reduced antifungal activity but apparently greater water-solubility than amphotericin B. This shows the potential for use of the new vector in engineering of this and other biosynthetic pathways in Streptomyces.
      444Scopus© Citations 55