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  • Publication
    Structural Health Monitoring Developments in TRUSS Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network
    This paper reports on recent contributions by the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network titled TRUSS (Training in Reducing Uncertainty of Structural Safety) to the field of structural safety in rail and road bridges ( In TRUSS, uncertainty in bridge safety is addressed via cost efficient structural performance monitoring and fault diagnostics methods including: (1) the use of the rotation response due to the traffic traversing a bridge and weigh-in-motion concepts as damage indicator, (2) the combination of design parameters in probabilistic context for geometrical and material properties, traffic data and assumption on level of deterioration to evaluate bridge safety (via Bayesian updating and a damage indicator based on real time measurement), (3) the application of a fuzzy classification technique via feature selection extracted using empirical mode decomposition to detect failure, and (4) the testing of alternative vibration based damage sensitive features other than modal parameters. Progress has also been made in improving modern technologies based on optical fiber distributed sensing, and sensors mounted on instrumented terrestrial and on aerial vehicles, in order to gather more accurate and efficient info about the structure. More specifically, the following aspects have been covered: (a) the spatial resolution and strain accuracy obtained with optical distributed fiber when applied to concrete elements as well as the ideal adhesive, and the potential for detecting crack or abnormal deflections without failure or debonding, (b) the possibility of using the high-resolution measurement capabilities of the Traffic Speed Deflectometer for bridge monitoring purposes and, (c) the acquisition of bridge details and defects via unmanned aerial vehicles.
  • Publication
    Analysis of Load Test on Composite I-Girder Bridge
    This paper showcases the importance of field testing in efforts to deal with the deteriorating infrastructure. It demonstrates a load test performed on a healthy but aging composite reinforced concrete bridges in Exeter, UK. The bridge girders were instrumented with strain transducers and static strains were recorded while a four-axle, 32 tonne lorry remained stationary in a single lane. The results obtained from the field test were used to calculate transverse load distribution factors (DFs) of the deck structure for each loading case. Additionally, a 3-D finite element model of the bridge was developed and calibrated based on field test data. Similar loading cases were simulated on the analytical model and behaviour of the structure under static loading was studied. It was concluded that the bridge support conditions had changed throughout its service life, which affected the superstructure load distribution characteristics. Finally, DFs obtained from analysis were compared with factors provided in Design Manual for Roads and Bridges Standard Specification for similar type of bridges.
  • Publication
    Identifying damage in a bridge by analysing rotation response to a moving load
    This article proposes a bridge damage detection method using direct rotation measurements. Initially, numerical analyses are carried out on a one-dimensional (1D) simply supported beam model loaded with a single moving point load to investigate the sensitivity of rotation as a main parameter for damage identification. As a result of this study, the difference in rotation measurements due to a single moving point load obtained for healthy and damaged states is proposed as a damage indicator. A relatively simple laboratory experiment is conducted on a 3-m long simply supported beam structure to validate the results obtained from the numerical analysis. The case of multi-axle vehicles is investigated through numerical analyses of a 1D bridge model and a theoretical basis for damage detection is presented. Finally, a sophisticated 3D dynamic finite element model of a 20-m long simply supported bridge structure is developed by an independent team of researchers and used to test the robustness of the proposed damage detection methodology in a series of blind tests. Rotations from an extensive range of damage scenarios were provided to the main team who applied their methods without prior knowledge of the extent or location of the damage. Results from the blind test simulations demonstrate that the proposed methodology provides a reasonable indication of the bridge condition for all test scenarios.
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