Earth Institute Research Collection

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Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 212
  • Publication
    Impact factors on medium span bridges due to multiple vehicle presence
    The Dynamic Amplification Factor for Bridges is of major concern in both their design and assessment. Research to date has focused on the single truck event. However, in many bridges the critical loading case is that of multiple truck presence on the deck. To accurately determine the dynamic amplification factor it is necessary to examine the effects of multiple trucks traversing a bridge. Experiments in Slovenia were carried out to examine the dynamic amplification factor for single and two truck events. Numerical models were constructed and validated from these experiments. These models were then used to compare the dynamic amplification factors produced from both single and multiple trucks crossing the bridge at various speeds. Important conclusions are drawn for bridge design and assessment purposes.
  • Publication
    The Use of the Forced Frequency of a Bridge Due to a Truck Fleet for Estimating Stiffness Losses at Low Speed
    The influence of traffic loads on the dynamic features of a bridge is an external factor that can hinder the true condition of the structure. This paper aims to effectuate a shift in the way this factor is viewed. If the interaction between vehicle and bridge is modeled using the finite element method, the response is based on mass, stiffness, and damping matrices of a coupled vehicle-bridge system that vary with the location of the load at each point in time. The time-varying forced frequencies of a beam bridge model due to a fleet of 3-axle trucks based on eigenvalue analysis (i.e., derived from the matrices of the coupled system) are compared to those obtained using dynamic transient analysis (i.e., derived from the frequency content of the acceleration response of the beam due to a truck crossing). Truck properties are randomly varied within a realistic range to obtain a pattern for the forced vibration due to a truck fleet traveling at an ideal speed of 1 m/s on a 15 m bridge with a smooth surface, and at 10 m/s on a 30 m bridge. These patterns reveal a trend that allows for locating and quantifying the stiffness loss associated with a crack using only the forced frequency. The implementation of this methodology requires the installation of accelerometers on the bridge, and a nearby weigh-in-motion system to identify the traffic fleet of interest. High requirements for frequency resolution limit the application to bridges located on low speed routes.
  • Publication
    Academic Advising in Civil Engineering: design and evaluation of a hybrid model
    A project to formalise and expand Academic Advising has been implemented at the UCD Civil Engineering School. The goals of this project were twofold: on the one hand, it aimed at training faculty members in Academic Advising roles and providing them with the necessary resources. On the other hand, the project sought to expand student interaction, in particular by engaging students informally in order to build a rapport between them and the academic advisors that we expect will bring long term benefits. The resulting model combines elements of both the prescriptive, e.g., formal training, informative talks on key topics, and developmental approaches, e.g., coffee mornings for students and faculty members. The evaluation of the project was carried out through questionnaires and focus groups. It highlighted very positive feedback from the students, who find these new lines of communication with the academic staff to be useful and productive.
  • Publication
    A small secreted protein from Zymoseptoria tritici interacts with a wheat E3 ubiquitin to promote disease
    Septoria Tritici Blotch, caused by the ascomycete fungus Zymoseptoria tritici, is a major threat to wheat production worldwide. The Z. tritici genome encodes many small, secreted proteins (ZtSSP) that likely play a key role in the successful colonisation of host tissues. However, few of these ZtSSPs have been functionally characterised for their role during infection. In this study, we identified and characterised a small, conserved cysteine-rich secreted effector from Zymoseptoria tritici which has homologues in other plant pathogens in the dothideomycetes. ZtSSP2 was expressed throughout Z. tritici infection in wheat with the highest levels observed early during infection. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed an interaction between ZtSSP2 and wheat E3 ubiquitin ligase in yeast and this was further confirmed in planta using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and co-immunoprecipitation. Down-regulation of this wheat E3 ligase using virus-induced gene silencing, increased the susceptibility of wheat to Septoria tritici blotch (STB). Together these results suggest that TaE3UBQ likely plays a role in plant immunity to defend against Z. tritici.
      77Scopus© Citations 4
  • Publication
    Open minded and open access: introducing NeoBiota, a new peer-reviewed journal of biological invasions
    The Editorial presents the focus, scope, policies, and the inaugural issue of NeoBiota, a new open access peer-reviewed journal of biological invasions. The new journal NeoBiota is a continuation of the former NEOBIOTA publication series. The journal will deal with all aspects of invasion biology and impose no restrictions on manuscript size neither on use of color. NeoBiota implies an XML-based editorial workflow and several cutting-edge innovations in publishing and dissemination, such as semantic markup of and enhancements to published texts, data publication, and extensive cross-linking within the journal and to external sources.