Welcome to Research Repository UCD

Research Repository UCD is a digital collection of open access scholarly research publications from University College Dublin. Research Repository UCD collects, preserves and makes freely available publications including peer-reviewed articles, working papers and conference papers created by UCD researchers. Where material has already been published it is made available subject to the open-access policies of the original publishers. This service is maintained by UCD Library.

 
Most downloaded
  • Publication
      47416
  • Publication
    Corporate governance, accountability and mechanisms of accountability : an overview
    Purpose – This paper reviews traditional corporate governance and accountability research, to suggest opportunities for future research in this field. The first part adopts an analytical frame of reference based on theory, accountability mechanisms, methodology, business sector/context, globalisation and time horizon. The second part of the paper locates the seven papers in the special issue in a framework of analysis showing how each one contributes to the field. The paper presents a frame of reference which may be used as a 'roadmap' for researchers to navigate their way through the prior literature and to position their work on the frontiers of corporate governance research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employs an analytical framework, and is primarily discursive and conceptual. Findings – The paper encourages broader approaches to corporate governance and accountability research beyond the traditional and primarily quantitative approaches of prior research. Broader theoretical perspectives, methodological approaches, accountability mechanism, sectors/contexts, globalisation and time horizons are identified. Research limitations/implications – Greater use of qualitative research methods are suggested, which present challenges particularly of access to the “black box” of corporate boardrooms. Originality/value – Drawing on the analytical framework, and the papers in the special issue, the paper identifies opportunities for further research of accountability and corporate governance.
      33962Scopus© Citations 310
  • Publication
    Elderly care in Ireland - provisions and providers
    (University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2010-04) ;
      32331
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      31296
  • Publication
    Equality in education : an equality of condition perspective
    (Sage Publications, 2005) ;
    Transforming schools into truly egalitarian institutions requires a holistic and integrated approach. Using a robust conception of 'equality of condition', we examine key dimensions of equality that are central to both the purposes and processes of education: equality in educational and related resources; equality of respect and recognition; equality of power; and equality of love, care and solidarity. We indicate in each case some of the major changes that need to occur if we are to promote equality of condition. Starting with inequalities of resources, and in particular with inequalities tied to social class, we argue for abandoning rigid grouping policies, challenging the power of parents in relation to both selection and grouping, and changing curricula and assessment systems to make them more inclusive of the wide range of human intelligences. In relation to respect and recognition, we call for much more inclusive processes for respecting differences, not only in schools' organizational cultures, but also in their curriculum, pedagogy and assessment systems. Regarding inequalities of power, we call for democratization of both teacher-student relationships and school and college organization. For promoting equality of love, care and solidarity, we argue that schools need to develop an appreciation of the intrinsic role that emotions play in the process of teaching and learning, to provide a space for students and teachers to talk about their feelings and concerns, and to devise educational experiences that will enable students to develop their emotional skills or personal intelligences as a discrete area of human capability.
      23854Scopus© Citations 145
  • Publication
    Discretionary disclosure strategies in corporate narratives : incremental information or impression management?
    (University of Florida. Fisher School of Accounting, 2007) ;
    The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the literature on discretionary narrative disclosures. We explore why, how, and whether preparers of corporate narrative reports use discretionary disclosures in corporate narrative documents and why, how, and whether users react thereto. To facilitate the review, we provide three taxonomies based on: the motivation for discretionary narrative disclosures (opportunistic behavior, i.e. impression management, versus provision of useful incremental information); the research perspective (preparer versus user); and seven discretionary disclosure strategies. We also examine the whole range of theoretical frameworks utilized by prior research, and we put forward some suggestions for future research.
      22877
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    From asset based welfare to welfare housing? The changing function of social housing in Ireland
    (Routledge, 2011) ;
    This article examines a distinctive and significant aspect of social housing in Ireland – its change in function from an asset-based role in welfare support to a more standard model of welfare housing. It outlines the nationalist and agrarian drivers which expanded the initial role of social housing beyond the goal of improving housing conditions for the poor towards the goal of extending home ownership and assesses whether this focus made it more similar to the ‘asset based welfare’ approach to housing found in south-east Asia than to social housing in western Europe. From the mid-1980s, the role of Irish social housing changed as the sector contracted and evolved towards the model of welfare housing now found in many other western countries. Policy makers have struggled to address the implications of this transition and vestiges of social housing’s traditional function are still evident, consequently the boundaries between social housing, private renting and home ownership in Ireland have grown increasingly nebulous.
    Scopus© Citations 29  22441
  • Publication
    Using Twitter to recommend real-time topical news
    Recommending news stories to users, based on their preferences,has long been a favourite domain for recommender systems research. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to news recommendation that harnesses real-time micro-blogging activity, from a service such as Twitter, as the basis for promoting news stories from a user's favourite RSS feeds. A preliminary evaluation is carried out on an implementation of this technique that shows promising results.
      21449Scopus© Citations 339
  • Publication
    Constructive approaches towards water treatment works sludge management : an international review of beneficial re-uses
    (Taylor & Francis, 2007-03) ;
    Till date, virtually all known drinking water processing systems generate an enormous amount of residual sludge, and what else to do with this rapidly increasing 'waste' stream in an economic and environmentally sustainable manner remains a significant environmental issue. Perhaps, the realization of this fact has led to series of concerted efforts aimed at beneficial re-uses in an effort to close the loop between efficient water treatment and sustainable sludge management. This paper therefore presents a comprehensive review of available literature on attempts at beneficial reuses of water treatment plant sludge, in an effort to provide a compendium of recent and past developments, and update our current state of knowledge. Four broad categories of uses, which included over eleven possible ways in which waterworks sludges can be reused were identified and examined. Obvious advantages of such reuse options were highlighted and knowledge gaps identified. Future issues that will assist in the development of sustainable waterworks sludge management options with a multi-prong approach were equally discussed.
      20015Scopus© Citations 396
  • Publication
    Expansive cements and soundless chemical demolition agents : state of technology review
    Expansive cements and soundless chemical demolition agents (SCDAs) were first introduced in the early 1970s but failed to gain widespread adoption for selective removal of rock and concrete due to their proprietary nature and a lack of usage guidelines. Nearly 40 years later, the patents have expired, and a large number of competitive products have entered the market. These factors coupled with a heightened interest in their potential environmental benefits have greatly expanded their usage. Specifically, these chemicals can be introduced into a pattern of small, drilled holes in concrete and/or rock. After a specific period (usually less than 24 hours), the in-situ material will crack sufficiently that it can be removed without the use of traditional explosives or further percussive efforts. The products generate substantially less noise and vibration than usually associated with the removal of rock and concrete. This paper provides a state-of-the-technology review of five available products. The focus is on the proposed applicability of various products under specific conditions. Special attention is paid to the viability of such agents under varying temperatures and with materials of particular strengths.
      18710
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    Clustering with the multivariate normal inverse Gaussian distribution
    Many model-based clustering methods are based on a finite Gaussian mixture model. The Gaussian mixture model implies that the data scatter within each group is elliptically shaped. Hence non-elliptical groups are often modeled by more than one component, resulting in model over-fitting. An alternative is to use a mean–variance mixture of multivariate normal distributions with an inverse Gaussian mixing distribution (MNIG) in place of the Gaussian distribution, to yield a more flexible family of distributions. Under this model the component distributions may be skewed and have fatter tails than the Gaussian distribution. The MNIG based approach is extended to include a broad range of eigendecomposed covariance structures. Furthermore, MNIG models where the other distributional parameters are constrained is considered. The Bayesian Information Criterion is used to identify the optimal model and number of mixture components. The method is demonstrated on three sample data sets and a novel variation on the univariate Kolmogorov–Smirnov test is used to assess goodness of fit.
      17721Scopus© Citations 64
  • Publication
    Inequality and crime
    (MIT Press, 2000-11)
    This paper considers the relationship between inequality and crime using data from urban counties. The behavior of property and violent crime are quite different. Inequality has no effect on property crime but a strong and robust impact on violent crime, with an elasticity above 0.5. By contrast, poverty and police activity have significant effects on property crime, but little on violent crime. Property crime is well explained by the economic theory of crime, while violent crime is better explained by strain and social disorganization theories.
      17713Scopus© Citations 445
  • Publication
    Curriculum Design in Higher Education: Theory to Practice
    (University College Dublin. Teaching and Learning, 2015-09)
    This eBook emphasises the theory to practice of curriculum design in higher education. The book focuses on programme (not module) level of design; incorporates face-to-face, blended and online curricula; attempts to link theory to practice by giving some practical resources and/or exercises; draws the author's experiences of working and researching into curriculum design in the Irish higher education sector; is aimed at all staff involved in curriculum design, including academic staff (faculty), institutional managers, educational developers and technologists, support staff, library staff and curriculum researchers; is primarily drawn from literature and experiences in the higher education sector, however those in adult and further education may also find it useful. The structure of this book is based on a curriculum design process that the author has developed as part of her experience and research on curriculum design. 
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  • Publication
    Agent-based coordination for the sensor web
    The approach described advocates the use of a multi-agent system, and specifically the use of multi-agent distributed constraint optimisation algorithms. Developing software for low powered sensing devices introduces several problems to be addressed; the most obvious being the limited computational resources available. In this paper we discuss an implementation of ADOPT, a pre-existing algorithm for distributed constraint optimisation, and describe how it has been integrated with a reflective agent platform developed for resource constrained devices, namely Agent Factory Micro Edition (AFME). The usefulness of this work is illustrated through the canonical multi-agent coordination problem, namely graph colouring.
      16084Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Michael White's narrative therapy
    (Springer Verlag, 1998)
    A systematized description of a number of practices central to Michael Whites' narrative approach to therapy is given. These include collaborative positioning of the therapist, externalizing the problem, excavating unique outcomes, thickening the new plot, and linking the new plot to the past and the future. The practices of remembering and incorporation, using literary means to achieve therapeutic ends, and facilitating taking-it-back practices are also described. A number of questions are given which may be useful for those concerned with narrative therapy to address.
      15654Scopus© Citations 109
  • Publication
    Visualization in sporting contexts : the team scenario
    Wearable sensor systems require an interactive and communicative interface for the user to interpret data in a meaningful way. The development of adaptive personalization features in a visualization tool for such systems can convey a more meaningful picture to the user of the system. In this paper, a visualization tool called Visualization in Team Scenarios (VTS), which can be used by a coach to monitor an athlete’s physiological parameters, is presented. The VTS has been implemented with a wearable sensor system that can monitor players’ performance in a game in a seamless and transparent manner. Using the VTS, a coach is able to analyze the physiological data of athletes generated using select wearable sensors, and subsequently analyse the results to personalize training schedules thus improving the performance of the players.
      15416
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    Provision of childcare services in Ireland
    (University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2008-03) ;
    External report commissioned by and presented to the EU Directorate-General Employment and Social Affairs, Unit G1 'Equality between women and men'
      15290
  • Publication
    Financial statement fraud : some lessons from US and European case studies
    (Wiley-Blackwell, 2007-07) ;
    This paper studies 14 companies which were subject to an official investigation arising from the publication of fraudulent financial statements. The research found senior management to be responsible for most fraud. Recording false sales was the most common method of financial statement fraud. Meeting external forecasts emerged as the primary motivation. Management discovered most fraud, although the discovery was split between incumbent and new management.
      15144Scopus© Citations 40
  • Publication
    The effectiveness of family therapy and systemic interventions for child-focused problems
    (Wiley, 2009-02)
    This review updates a similar paper published in the Journal of Family Therapy in 2001. It presents evidence from meta-analyses, systematic literature reviews and controlled trials for the effectiveness of systemic interventions for families of children and adolescents with various difficulties. In this context, systemic interventions include both family therapy and other family-based approaches such as parent training. The evidence supports the effectiveness of systemic interventions either alone or as part of multimodal programmes for sleep, feeding and attachment problems in infancy; child abuse and neglect; conduct problems (including childhood behavioural difficulties, ADHD, delinquency and drug abuse); emotional problems (including anxiety, depression, grief, bipolar disorder and suicidality); eating disorders (including anorexia, bulimia and obesity); and somatic problems (including enuresis, encopresis, recurrent abdominal pain, and poorly controlled asthma and diabetes).
      14954Scopus© Citations 161
  • Publication
    Focus groups versus individual interviews with children : A comparison of data
    (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006) ;
    In recent years there has been an increase in the use of qualitative data collection techniques in research with children. Among the most common of these methods are focus groups and individual interviews. While many authors claim that focus groups have advantages over individual interviews, these claims have not been tested empirically with children. The present study reports on the use of focus groups and interviews to collect qualitative data from 116 children in three age groups, with mean ages of 8.4, 11.5 and 14.3 years. The children were randomly allocated to participate in either focus groups or individual interviews where they were presented with identical material and questions relating to their beliefs about peers with psychological disorders. In line with previous research, the interviews produced significantly more relevant and unique ideas about the causes of these disorders than the focus groups, but the latter gave rise to greater elaboration of ideas. The participating children showed no significant difference in their preference for one method over the other. Thus, whether to choose individual interviews or focus groups is likely to depend on the nature of the research question in any given study.
      14514Scopus© Citations 45
Recent Submissions
  • Publication
    Strategic planning of bio-based supply chains: Unlocking bottlenecks and incorporating social sustainability into biorefinery systems
    The sourcing of renewable bio-resources and their conversion through novel biorefinery technology is being supported by several initiatives and policies worldwide involving the development of a circular bioeconomy. However, further questions remain unanswered such as how the strategic planning of new bio-based supply chains could contribute to sustainability targets given the common oversight for the social dimension in decision-making levels of biorefinery supply chains. Based on a systematic literature review of research papers on biorefineries, bottlenecks associated with the strategic planning of new supply chains from feedstocks originating from land and marine ecosystems were identified, along with the aspects currently representing the social dimension of sustainability. The results outline two main findings. First, the bottlenecks identified and portrayed by grass and seaweed-based supply chains can be summed into the following main categories: bio-resource availability, quality, logistic planning, economic, ecological, and social issues, policy, research and innovation. Second, current research at the strategic decision-making levels of biorefineries is substantially focused on techno-economic aspects. The inclusion of environmental aspects has been increasing with life cycle assessment methodologies in more recent years, while social elements remain widely disregarded. The results further uncover the social dimension, represented by aspects such as employment creation, participation of primary producers, food and energy security, stakeholders' engagement, societal acceptance, effects on local communities, workers' well-being, education, gender equality, cultural values, and potential conflicts. To overcome bottlenecks and incorporate social dimensions, new perspectives and interdisciplinarity are needed to extrapolate the boundaries of analytical frameworks currently adopted by biorefinery research. We suggest framing the planning of new bio-based supply chains within a socio-technical-ecological system to pursue integrated strategies toward more sustainable and socially relevant biorefinery systems.
      4Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    Responsible supply systems for macroalgae: Upscaling seaweed cultivation in Ireland
    To address societal challenges and attend to the increasing demand for seaweed while avoiding the over-exploitation of wild resources, the future expansion of the Irish seaweed industry depends on upscaling macroalgal cultivation. Through an interdisciplinary research approach, this study aimed to conduct an in-depth investigation of the prospects of upscaling seaweed aquaculture in Ireland through the lens of sustainability management. The identification of responsibilities of emerging enterprises was aligned with socio-ecological dimensions of sustainability and found to be related to: 1) the natural environment, 2) the development of rural coastal communities, 3) the engagement with local actors and 4) the customer segment. Moreover, seaweed cultivation still faces many uncertainties and bottlenecks from the operational up to institutional levels. Distinct from seaweed collected from the wild, cultivated seaweed has more phases added to the supply chain cycle. This includes, for example, the optimal site selection, the granting of an aquaculture licence and potentially social licence to operate, seed supply, and optimal timing for cultivation or harvest depending on the species, processing capacity and end-uses. The results contribute to an enhanced and holistic understanding of macroalgal cultivation in Ireland, as well as the social responsibility of emerging enterprises over socio-ecological systems and for the establishment of new supply chains based on seaweed. This can help to guide better decision-making of prospective growers, certification bodies, and policymakers in Ireland and beyond.
      5
  • Publication
    Immediate Gratuitousness
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    Immediate Gratuitousness puts cryptocurrency and its sister industries into a history of performances of extravagance, daring, and waste. My assertion is that the people to read at this point in the development of crypto are not Mazzucato or Galbraith, Minsky or Perez (or Hayek and Mises), but Antonin Artaud, playwright of the theater of self-destruction and gratuitous gestures. This account of crypto situates it in a context of value produced through performance and ruinous waste, from burning a million British pounds on the Isle of Jura in 1994 to the production of proof-of-burn minting mechanisms, and explains how to make sense of our carnivalesque moment through the logic of the extravagantly destructive.
      7
  • Publication
    Blow That Mausoleum Down
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    Drawing on anthropological perspectives, this essay argues that the fungibility of objects and the ability to exchange them for money is a defining characteristic of capitalist markets. In contrast, other systems of reckoning value emphasize the unique relationships within which objects are embedded and their inability to stand for just any other thing. The essay further highlights the role of slavery in the origins and continued dominance of capitalism, and the existence of alternative systems such as cooperativism and sharing that are often overlooked. The essay then examines the Saussurean and Peircean semiotics underlying the concept of money as an abstract sign, and argues that non-fungible tokens (NFTs) in blockchain technology contradict these theories by emphasizing pure uniqueness and rendering objects non-transformable or inconvertible. The essay concludes by warning against the dangers of a future where fungibility is absent, as it is necessary for life and the generation of new and different possibilities.
      7
  • Publication
    Blockchain and Web3: Mirrors, "Jouissance" and Social and Personal Identity Formation
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    This paper argues that the concept of "jouissance" can help us understand the popularity of blockchain protocols, meme coins, and NFTs in the world of Web3. These technologies act as mirrors to project reflections that allow people to imagine social and personal selves differently. Meme-coins use dark humor to oppose mainstream society, and the popularity of NFTs cannot be fully explained by artistic merit or return on investment. Instead, each collectible NFT allows the collector to explore various possible representations of the self. It is argued that blockchains must be seen as socio-informational-technical systems that participate in the formation of the symbolic social structures giving rise to social and personal identity. By recognizing the personal and social significance of jouissance, we can appreciate the darker, more primal aspects of these phenomena that other theories and approaches cannot fully explain.
      3
  • Publication
    Trying to sell the Crow Queen in Web3: On the resistance of video gamers to cryptocurrencies, NFTs and their financial logic
    This essay is an encounter between an artist creating characters for video games and an academic studying how people and things are being financialized. Exchanging about the appearance of NFTs and cryptocurrencies – technologies associated with Web3 in the video game industry, the academic and the artist reflect on the place of playfulness, creation, and finance in our society. They observe that most North American and European players resisted NFTs and cryptocurrencies, while more Asian-Pacific ones embraced the latter. They conclude that those reactions were explained by the fact that gamers perceived cryptocurrencies and NFTs as institutional objects associated with a financial logic, whose presence threatened the gaming logic. As pragmatic friends, they nevertheless issued an NFT with this essay, a "Crow Queen." Time will tell if the Web3 society will praise this new form of digital joint academic/art production.
      9
  • Publication
    Web3 and the amazing computable economy
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    Everything changes with web3. The internet - these computers all strung together with machine language - becomes a new type of economy with digitally native money (crypto), digitally native agreements and law (smart contracts), digitally native property (tokens, NFTs), digitally native identity (DiDs), digitally native markets (DEXs), digitally native organisation (DAOs), digitally native security, truth and expectations (consensus protocols). Web3 is a further surge along the evolutionary innovation trajectory of the internet and computing and communication technologies. It's sand and lightning 3.0!
      4
  • Publication
    The Gambler
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    This essay explores the influence of financialisation and the 2008 credit crisis on the cultures forming around Web3. In a context of renewed mistrust in financial institutions and states, the emergence of Web3 and digital finance opens a way to navigate this problematic state of affairs and invites individuals to conceive of the agency of machines, code and algorithms as a possible deviation from austerity towards some form of liberation. The "Gambler" archetype is used to describe those who engage with digital finance as a strategy to face the generalised climate of austerity and to claim their share of the economy, now that work is no longer a lifetime calling.
      4
  • Publication
    Web3: The gentrified carnival?
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    Web3 reflects and instantiates the ‘ludic turn’ of the last few decades, where identity is increasingly forged through play and games rather than through work. The ludic is especially evident in the Bitcoin ecosystem, where the elements of the carnivalesque – play, anarchy, dissimulation, vulgar language, and excessive consumption – are pervasive. These elements may also be divined in Web3, though they are less ubiquitous, which suggests that Web3 is perhaps best seen as a gentrified carnival.
      7
  • Publication
    Crypto Personalities as Carnivalesque Jesters
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    In this paper, I discuss the personalities of several representative crypto YouTube celebrities and Bitcoin aficionados, such as George Tung from CryptosRUs, Mike Jenkins (Guy) from Coin Bureau, Lark Davis, Andreas M. Antonopoulos, and Richard Heart. I look closely at their online performances to reveal the character of a trickster, the ambivalent mythological figure that symbolizes chaos, creativity and disruption. Based on the core literature on the subject, I trace how the figure of a trickster has transformed into the jester in medieval times, and then into the adventurer in the new modern times, and how this transformation is relevant for today. A variety of examples demonstrates that the jester, the trickster, and the adventurer all reveal themselves in different facets of crypto influencers' performances. However, the most popular YouTubers are also comparatively tame: they produce educational content on cryptocurrencies and blockchain, as compared to ‘get rich quick’ schemes, which are typically presented with a higher degree of tricksteriness. There are also crucial differences and omissions: crypto influencers do not demonstrate queerness, which is inherent to the trickster, and they do not balance praise with abuse, as jesters do. The modern type of an adventurer is more fitting, although it is mostly found in the virtual Wild West of blockchain entrepreneurship, rather than on the most popular YouTube channels.
      8
  • Publication
    The Rise of Blockchain Egregores
    This article explores the emergence of cryptocurrencies like Dogecoin and Shiba Inu in the "crypto carnival" and their ties to the Trickster archetype. It discusses the concept of tokens and the surge of tokenization in the crypto-summer of 2020-2021. The article explains how Shiba Inu became a purely recursive token with no external measure of value. It also explores the creation of egregores, which are created intentionally or unintentionally by groups of people who share a common belief or interest. Finally, the article discusses how digital assets born out of a countermovement may eventually fall prey to the same system they were trying to escape from, using the carnivalesque to trigger the emergence of an egregore that brings monetary value to worthless objects.
      7
  • Publication
    Web3 as decentralization theater? A framework for envisioning decentralization strategically
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    Web3's raison d'être is decentralization. Quite problematically, however, few industry analysts can articulate what "decentralization" really entails; whether it differs at all from the notion of "distribution"; and how either construct can be measured with observable data to enable a meaningful analysis of the industry's core promise. Instead, Web3 is akin to a decentralization theater in which archetypical characters, who resonate with the likes of Hamlet and Godot, enact decentralization'based on fictitious narratives. After critically reassessing these narratives about decentralization, this paper offers a fresh perspective to evaluate, less theatrically and hopefully more rigorously, future claims about "being decentralized." I argue that the crucial issue lurking behind the decentralization narrative is the dispersion of authority within blockchain platforms, which consists of two fundamental dimensions, namely the dispersion of information and of decision-making. The value proposition of Web3 will not be taken seriously until the industry can provide reliable indicators of authority dispersion and demonstrate that the latter affects strategic outcomes for blockchain platforms, including innovation, growth, and value creation.
      9
  • Publication
    When Digital Carnival? Distributed Control of the Metaverse Asset Layer to Enable Creative Digital Expression to Flourish
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    This essay argues that a coordinated network of independent producers is crucial in creating an immersive metaverse. A digital asset layer that is beyond the control of any single counterparty, along with reliable definition and exchange of fungible and non-fungible digital objects, is important for individual digital creative expression to flourish. Non-fungible digital objects are essential in creating an asset layer for a metaverse that approximates the full range of independent human creative expression. The development of NFTs alongside cryptocurrencies, governed by distributed and transparent control, can create an intermediation layer that is separate from the control of a platform intermediary.
      8
  • Publication
    Political Economy of the Crypto-Art Craze
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    This essay explores the rise of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and their impact on the art world. By examining the aesthetics and political economy of crypto art and its relationship to online pop culture, it questions the value of NFTs and whether they truly represent a source of income for artists or simply contribute to the speculative nature of crypto investments. The essay concludes by asserting that the world of crypto art is dominated by right-wing libertarians and black box algorithms, and that a radical redistribution of wealth is necessary to address the issues of power, race, and gender within the industry.
      7
  • Publication
    Institutional Isomorphism in Web3: same same but different?
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01) ;
    Like an online carnival, Web3 aims to turn the internet’s social order upside down. Unlike a carnival, Web3 wants to be more than a week-long party, and morph into a legitimate substitute of the internet’s status quo. Web3's secret sauce for upheaval are decentralized, permissionless technologies, in particular blockchain technologies. In this exploratory paper we draw on the concept of institutional isomorphism to muse about Web3's future and to highlight the inherent tension between striving to be different from Web2 yet wanting to become more legitimate. We argue that technical merits are hardly enough to realize Web3's high aspirations. Regulatory pressures, rampant uncertainty and the professional norms of Web3 participants drive the space to adopt many of the organizational structures and practices that it aims to displace. To maintain divergence from Web2, despite isomorphic pressures, we suggest it is important to increase the overall diversity of people in Web3, to double down on the value of decentralization, and to reaffirm Web3's commitment to creatively re-imagine various institutional arrangements.
      8
  • Publication
    A Progressive Web3: From Social Coproduction to Digital Polycentric Governance
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    This essay critically evaluates the political economy of Web3 and offers a neo-institutional model to explain qualitative observations of contemporary digital social movements. By starting to develop a sociological model of Web3 rooted in micro-organizational practices, including trust mediation and social coproduction, this essay re-evaluates assumptions of scarcity, economic value, and social belonging. It concludes by introducing a novel research programme to study digital polycentric governance that focuses on community self-governance of digital common pool resources (DCPRs) and looks forward to empirical research using on-chain datasets from Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs).
      8
  • Publication
    Business without firms. A planetary design language for DAOs
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) promise to be an incubator for a regenerative, mutualist, and democratic economy. But if business is no longer done in firms and workers are neither employed nor managed – what else? This paper argues that a new production architecture inevitably involves an uncomfortable look at the idea of 'business' itself, requiring us to reconsider deeply ingrained ideas of scale, ownership, and control. Here, you will find three provocations to institutionally re-imagine DAOs for a planetary-conscious future. Bear with me.
      9
  • Publication
    Entering the field of Web3: "Infrastructuring" and how to to it
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    Web3 is a practice in participatory digital infrastructures through the ability to read, write, and control (or "own") digital assets. Web3 is hailed as the alternative to the failings of big tech, offering a participatory mode of digital organization and shared ownership of digital infrastructure through algorithmic governance. This paper offers an introductory playbook to researchers entering the field of Web3 by providing an analytical lens to approach the emergent field of Web3 as "infrastructuring." It argues that Web3 can be understood as a collective, community exploration of "how to infrastructure." Drawing on qualitative examples derived from digital ethnographic methods, the study reveals that play, politics, and prefiguration are fundamental qualities underpinning Web3's vision of offering an "exit" from established institutional infrastructures. Therefore, a primary challenge Web3 faces in its governance experiments centers around the question of how to effectively builld and manage infrastructure.
      9
  • Publication
    Web3 Is the Opportunity We Have Had All Along: Innovation Amnesia and Economic Democracy
    (Emerald, 2024-07-01)
    The class of technology variously referred to as Web3 or crypto has been heralded as a democratizing force for economics and governance. This chapter argues that, to the extent such hype is justified, it is only partly due to the affordances of the technology itself. Perhaps more important is the amnesia it has induced, as an innovative paradigm whose novelty inclines people to neglect once-stable norms. In both economics and governance, crypto offers opportunities for greater democracy, but following through on them is guaranteed by neither the technology nor the amnesia it invites.
      11
  • Publication
    Introduction to Web3: The New Cultural Economy
    Today the term Web3 (as distinct from Web 3.0) exists as a challenger to name the overall space variously known as cryptocurrency, Crypto or blockchain. It has an especial appeal to the post-2021 generation swept in under a wave of innovation in blockchain primitives. These primitives – Decentralised Autonomous Organisations (DAOs), Decentralised Finance (DeFi) and Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) – captured the imaginations of a new kind of user, one not necessarily plugged into the cypherpunk or crypto-anarchist ideals of Bitcoin. The term appears to partially reflect a desire to move beyond Bitcoin’s strictly monetary focus. The targets for blockchain decentralisation increasingly became the tech giants of Web 2.0, whose reputation had plummeted in this era.
      11