Welcome to Research Repository UCD

Research Repository UCD is a digital collection of open access scholarly research publications from University College Dublin. Research Repository UCD collects, preserves and makes freely available publications including peer-reviewed articles, working papers and conference papers created by UCD researchers. Where material has already been published it is made available subject to the open-access policies of the original publishers. This service is maintained by UCD Library.

 
Most downloaded
  • Publication
      47268
  • Publication
    Corporate governance, accountability and mechanisms of accountability : an overview
    Purpose – This paper reviews traditional corporate governance and accountability research, to suggest opportunities for future research in this field. The first part adopts an analytical frame of reference based on theory, accountability mechanisms, methodology, business sector/context, globalisation and time horizon. The second part of the paper locates the seven papers in the special issue in a framework of analysis showing how each one contributes to the field. The paper presents a frame of reference which may be used as a 'roadmap' for researchers to navigate their way through the prior literature and to position their work on the frontiers of corporate governance research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employs an analytical framework, and is primarily discursive and conceptual. Findings – The paper encourages broader approaches to corporate governance and accountability research beyond the traditional and primarily quantitative approaches of prior research. Broader theoretical perspectives, methodological approaches, accountability mechanism, sectors/contexts, globalisation and time horizons are identified. Research limitations/implications – Greater use of qualitative research methods are suggested, which present challenges particularly of access to the “black box” of corporate boardrooms. Originality/value – Drawing on the analytical framework, and the papers in the special issue, the paper identifies opportunities for further research of accountability and corporate governance.
      33554Scopus© Citations 298
  • Publication
    Elderly care in Ireland - provisions and providers
    (University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2010-04) ;
      32094
  • Publication
      31080
  • Publication
    Equality in education : an equality of condition perspective
    (Sage Publications, 2005) ;
    Transforming schools into truly egalitarian institutions requires a holistic and integrated approach. Using a robust conception of 'equality of condition', we examine key dimensions of equality that are central to both the purposes and processes of education: equality in educational and related resources; equality of respect and recognition; equality of power; and equality of love, care and solidarity. We indicate in each case some of the major changes that need to occur if we are to promote equality of condition. Starting with inequalities of resources, and in particular with inequalities tied to social class, we argue for abandoning rigid grouping policies, challenging the power of parents in relation to both selection and grouping, and changing curricula and assessment systems to make them more inclusive of the wide range of human intelligences. In relation to respect and recognition, we call for much more inclusive processes for respecting differences, not only in schools' organizational cultures, but also in their curriculum, pedagogy and assessment systems. Regarding inequalities of power, we call for democratization of both teacher-student relationships and school and college organization. For promoting equality of love, care and solidarity, we argue that schools need to develop an appreciation of the intrinsic role that emotions play in the process of teaching and learning, to provide a space for students and teachers to talk about their feelings and concerns, and to devise educational experiences that will enable students to develop their emotional skills or personal intelligences as a discrete area of human capability.
      23437Scopus© Citations 142
  • Publication
    Discretionary disclosure strategies in corporate narratives : incremental information or impression management?
    (University of Florida. Fisher School of Accounting, 2007) ;
    The purpose of this paper is to review and synthesize the literature on discretionary narrative disclosures. We explore why, how, and whether preparers of corporate narrative reports use discretionary disclosures in corporate narrative documents and why, how, and whether users react thereto. To facilitate the review, we provide three taxonomies based on: the motivation for discretionary narrative disclosures (opportunistic behavior, i.e. impression management, versus provision of useful incremental information); the research perspective (preparer versus user); and seven discretionary disclosure strategies. We also examine the whole range of theoretical frameworks utilized by prior research, and we put forward some suggestions for future research.
      22565
  • Publication
    From asset based welfare to welfare housing? The changing function of social housing in Ireland
    (Routledge, 2011) ;
    This article examines a distinctive and significant aspect of social housing in Ireland – its change in function from an asset-based role in welfare support to a more standard model of welfare housing. It outlines the nationalist and agrarian drivers which expanded the initial role of social housing beyond the goal of improving housing conditions for the poor towards the goal of extending home ownership and assesses whether this focus made it more similar to the ‘asset based welfare’ approach to housing found in south-east Asia than to social housing in western Europe. From the mid-1980s, the role of Irish social housing changed as the sector contracted and evolved towards the model of welfare housing now found in many other western countries. Policy makers have struggled to address the implications of this transition and vestiges of social housing’s traditional function are still evident, consequently the boundaries between social housing, private renting and home ownership in Ireland have grown increasingly nebulous.
    Scopus© Citations 29  22151
  • Publication
    Using Twitter to recommend real-time topical news
    Recommending news stories to users, based on their preferences,has long been a favourite domain for recommender systems research. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to news recommendation that harnesses real-time micro-blogging activity, from a service such as Twitter, as the basis for promoting news stories from a user's favourite RSS feeds. A preliminary evaluation is carried out on an implementation of this technique that shows promising results.
      21371Scopus© Citations 338
  • Publication
    Constructive approaches towards water treatment works sludge management : an international review of beneficial re-uses
    (Taylor & Francis, 2007-03) ;
    Till date, virtually all known drinking water processing systems generate an enormous amount of residual sludge, and what else to do with this rapidly increasing 'waste' stream in an economic and environmentally sustainable manner remains a significant environmental issue. Perhaps, the realization of this fact has led to series of concerted efforts aimed at beneficial re-uses in an effort to close the loop between efficient water treatment and sustainable sludge management. This paper therefore presents a comprehensive review of available literature on attempts at beneficial reuses of water treatment plant sludge, in an effort to provide a compendium of recent and past developments, and update our current state of knowledge. Four broad categories of uses, which included over eleven possible ways in which waterworks sludges can be reused were identified and examined. Obvious advantages of such reuse options were highlighted and knowledge gaps identified. Future issues that will assist in the development of sustainable waterworks sludge management options with a multi-prong approach were equally discussed.
      19904Scopus© Citations 388
  • Publication
    Expansive cements and soundless chemical demolition agents : state of technology review
    Expansive cements and soundless chemical demolition agents (SCDAs) were first introduced in the early 1970s but failed to gain widespread adoption for selective removal of rock and concrete due to their proprietary nature and a lack of usage guidelines. Nearly 40 years later, the patents have expired, and a large number of competitive products have entered the market. These factors coupled with a heightened interest in their potential environmental benefits have greatly expanded their usage. Specifically, these chemicals can be introduced into a pattern of small, drilled holes in concrete and/or rock. After a specific period (usually less than 24 hours), the in-situ material will crack sufficiently that it can be removed without the use of traditional explosives or further percussive efforts. The products generate substantially less noise and vibration than usually associated with the removal of rock and concrete. This paper provides a state-of-the-technology review of five available products. The focus is on the proposed applicability of various products under specific conditions. Special attention is paid to the viability of such agents under varying temperatures and with materials of particular strengths.
      18629
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    Clustering with the multivariate normal inverse Gaussian distribution
    Many model-based clustering methods are based on a finite Gaussian mixture model. The Gaussian mixture model implies that the data scatter within each group is elliptically shaped. Hence non-elliptical groups are often modeled by more than one component, resulting in model over-fitting. An alternative is to use a mean–variance mixture of multivariate normal distributions with an inverse Gaussian mixing distribution (MNIG) in place of the Gaussian distribution, to yield a more flexible family of distributions. Under this model the component distributions may be skewed and have fatter tails than the Gaussian distribution. The MNIG based approach is extended to include a broad range of eigendecomposed covariance structures. Furthermore, MNIG models where the other distributional parameters are constrained is considered. The Bayesian Information Criterion is used to identify the optimal model and number of mixture components. The method is demonstrated on three sample data sets and a novel variation on the univariate Kolmogorov–Smirnov test is used to assess goodness of fit.
      17540Scopus© Citations 60
  • Publication
    Inequality and crime
    (MIT Press, 2000-11)
    This paper considers the relationship between inequality and crime using data from urban counties. The behavior of property and violent crime are quite different. Inequality has no effect on property crime but a strong and robust impact on violent crime, with an elasticity above 0.5. By contrast, poverty and police activity have significant effects on property crime, but little on violent crime. Property crime is well explained by the economic theory of crime, while violent crime is better explained by strain and social disorganization theories.
      17503Scopus© Citations 427
  • Publication
    Curriculum Design in Higher Education: Theory to Practice
    (University College Dublin. Teaching and Learning, 2015-09)
    This eBook emphasises the theory to practice of curriculum design in higher education. The book focuses on programme (not module) level of design; incorporates face-to-face, blended and online curricula; attempts to link theory to practice by giving some practical resources and/or exercises; draws the author's experiences of working and researching into curriculum design in the Irish higher education sector; is aimed at all staff involved in curriculum design, including academic staff (faculty), institutional managers, educational developers and technologists, support staff, library staff and curriculum researchers; is primarily drawn from literature and experiences in the higher education sector, however those in adult and further education may also find it useful. The structure of this book is based on a curriculum design process that the author has developed as part of her experience and research on curriculum design. 
      16476
  • Publication
    Agent-based coordination for the sensor web
    The approach described advocates the use of a multi-agent system, and specifically the use of multi-agent distributed constraint optimisation algorithms. Developing software for low powered sensing devices introduces several problems to be addressed; the most obvious being the limited computational resources available. In this paper we discuss an implementation of ADOPT, a pre-existing algorithm for distributed constraint optimisation, and describe how it has been integrated with a reflective agent platform developed for resource constrained devices, namely Agent Factory Micro Edition (AFME). The usefulness of this work is illustrated through the canonical multi-agent coordination problem, namely graph colouring.
      16047Scopus© Citations 2
  • Publication
    Michael White's narrative therapy
    (Springer Verlag, 1998)
    A systematized description of a number of practices central to Michael Whites' narrative approach to therapy is given. These include collaborative positioning of the therapist, externalizing the problem, excavating unique outcomes, thickening the new plot, and linking the new plot to the past and the future. The practices of remembering and incorporation, using literary means to achieve therapeutic ends, and facilitating taking-it-back practices are also described. A number of questions are given which may be useful for those concerned with narrative therapy to address.
      15417Scopus© Citations 105
  • Publication
    Visualization in sporting contexts : the team scenario
    Wearable sensor systems require an interactive and communicative interface for the user to interpret data in a meaningful way. The development of adaptive personalization features in a visualization tool for such systems can convey a more meaningful picture to the user of the system. In this paper, a visualization tool called Visualization in Team Scenarios (VTS), which can be used by a coach to monitor an athlete’s physiological parameters, is presented. The VTS has been implemented with a wearable sensor system that can monitor players’ performance in a game in a seamless and transparent manner. Using the VTS, a coach is able to analyze the physiological data of athletes generated using select wearable sensors, and subsequently analyse the results to personalize training schedules thus improving the performance of the players.
      15367
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    Provision of childcare services in Ireland
    (University College Dublin. School of Social Justice, 2008-03) ;
    External report commissioned by and presented to the EU Directorate-General Employment and Social Affairs, Unit G1 'Equality between women and men'
      15241
  • Publication
    Financial statement fraud : some lessons from US and European case studies
    (Wiley-Blackwell, 2007-07) ;
    This paper studies 14 companies which were subject to an official investigation arising from the publication of fraudulent financial statements. The research found senior management to be responsible for most fraud. Recording false sales was the most common method of financial statement fraud. Meeting external forecasts emerged as the primary motivation. Management discovered most fraud, although the discovery was split between incumbent and new management.
      15002Scopus© Citations 38
  • Publication
    The effectiveness of family therapy and systemic interventions for child-focused problems
    (Wiley, 2009-02)
    This review updates a similar paper published in the Journal of Family Therapy in 2001. It presents evidence from meta-analyses, systematic literature reviews and controlled trials for the effectiveness of systemic interventions for families of children and adolescents with various difficulties. In this context, systemic interventions include both family therapy and other family-based approaches such as parent training. The evidence supports the effectiveness of systemic interventions either alone or as part of multimodal programmes for sleep, feeding and attachment problems in infancy; child abuse and neglect; conduct problems (including childhood behavioural difficulties, ADHD, delinquency and drug abuse); emotional problems (including anxiety, depression, grief, bipolar disorder and suicidality); eating disorders (including anorexia, bulimia and obesity); and somatic problems (including enuresis, encopresis, recurrent abdominal pain, and poorly controlled asthma and diabetes).
      14577Scopus© Citations 157
  • Publication
    Focus groups versus individual interviews with children : A comparison of data
    (Routledge (Taylor & Francis), 2006) ;
    In recent years there has been an increase in the use of qualitative data collection techniques in research with children. Among the most common of these methods are focus groups and individual interviews. While many authors claim that focus groups have advantages over individual interviews, these claims have not been tested empirically with children. The present study reports on the use of focus groups and interviews to collect qualitative data from 116 children in three age groups, with mean ages of 8.4, 11.5 and 14.3 years. The children were randomly allocated to participate in either focus groups or individual interviews where they were presented with identical material and questions relating to their beliefs about peers with psychological disorders. In line with previous research, the interviews produced significantly more relevant and unique ideas about the causes of these disorders than the focus groups, but the latter gave rise to greater elaboration of ideas. The participating children showed no significant difference in their preference for one method over the other. Thus, whether to choose individual interviews or focus groups is likely to depend on the nature of the research question in any given study.
      14266Scopus© Citations 43
Recent Submissions
  • Publication
    Exploring stable-based behaviour and behaviour switching for the detection of bilateral pain in equines
    Efficient and sensitive animal pain detection approaches are increasingly studied with the goal of improving animal welfare and monitoring the efficacy of treatment and rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of various behaviours as sensitive indicators of subtle inflammation states in equines. The long-term goal of this research is to understand how to objectively and remotely classify behaviours that are associated with inflammation using wearable inertial sensor technologies. This study represents a proof-of-concept investigation to ascertain what behavioural indices might be important in long-term monitoring of mild bilateral inflammation and recovery with a view to translating the approach to a technology-enabled remote monitoring paradigm. Bilateral synovitis of the intercarpal joints was induced in seven equines using lipopolysaccharide (0.25 ng) at time zero. The horses were confined to stables and monitored intermittently over seven days by stable-fixed video cameras. White blood cell count, carpal circumference and food availability were recorded across the study. An ethogram was created to manually annotate behaviours from video footage following lameness induction at seven different timepoints across a 1-week period. Behaviour data were processed extracting the duration, frequency and variability of behaviours. One-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant time effect for white blood cell count and behaviour switching. There were no significant changes in carpal circumferences and heart rate measures over the sampling period. Food availability appears to be an important contextual factor that should be considered in pain-related behavioural studies. We conclude that behaviour variability may be a promising indicator of subtle bilateral inflammation which should be further explored in larger controlled trials and different pain presentations. Future work will seek to optimise grouping of behaviours associated with inflammation that can be detected using wearable technologies for future remote monitoring protocols.
  • Publication
    Estimating Lower Limb Kinematics using a Reduced Wearable Sensor Count
    Goal: This paper presents an algorithm for accurately estimating pelvis, thigh, and shank kinematics during walking using only three wearable inertial sensors. Methods: The algorithm makes novel use of a constrained Kalman filter (CKF). The algorithm iterates through the prediction (kinematic equation), measurement (pelvis position pseudo-measurements, zero velocity update, flat-floor assumption, and covariance limiter), and constraint update (formulation of hinged knee joints and ball-and-socket hip joints). Results: Evaluation of the algorithm using an optical motion capture-based sensor-to-segment calibration on nine participants (7 men and 2 women, weight 63.0±6.8 kg, height 1.70±0.06 m, age 24.6±3.9 years old), with no known gait or lower body biomechanical abnormalities, who walked within a 4×4 m 2 capture area shows that it can track motion relative to the mid-pelvis origin with mean position and orientation (no bias) root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 5.21±1.3 cm and 16.1±3.2∘ , respectively. The sagittal knee and hip joint angle RMSEs (no bias) were 10.0±2.9∘ and 9.9±3.2∘ , respectively, while the corresponding correlation coefficient (CC) values were 0.87±0.08 and 0.74±0.12 . Conclusion: The CKF-based algorithm was able to track the 3D pose of the pelvis, thigh, and shanks using only three inertial sensors worn on the pelvis and shanks. Significance: Due to the Kalman-filter-based algorithm's low computation cost and the relative convenience of using only three wearable sensors, gait parameters can be computed in real-time and remotely for long-term gait monitoring. Furthermore, the system can be used to inform real-time gait assistive devices.
  • Publication
    Estimating Lower Limb Kinematics Using a Lie Group Constrained Extended Kalman Filter with a Reduced Wearable IMU Count and Distance Measurements
    Tracking the kinematics of human movement usually requires the use of equipment that constrains the user within a room (e.g., optical motion capture systems), or requires the use of a conspicuous body-worn measurement system (e.g., inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to each body segment). This paper presents a novel Lie group constrained extended Kalman filter to estimate lower limb kinematics using IMU and inter-IMU distance measurements in a reduced sensor count configuration. The algorithm iterates through the prediction (kinematic equations), measurement (pelvis height assumption/inter-IMU distance measurements, zero velocity update for feet/ankles, flat-floor assumption for feet/ankles, and covariance limiter), and constraint update (formulation of hinged knee joints and ball-and-socket hip joints). The knee and hip joint angle root-mean-square errors in the sagittal plane for straight walking were 7.6±2.6∘ and 6.6±2.7∘, respectively, while the correlation coefficients were 0.95±0.03 and 0.87±0.16, respectively. Furthermore, experiments using simulated inter-IMU distance measurements show that performance improved substantially for dynamic movements, even at large noise levels (σ=0.2 m). However, further validation is recommended with actual distance measurement sensors, such as ultra-wideband ranging sensors.
  • Publication
    Concussion History and Balance Performance in Adolescent Rugby Union Players
    Background: Sports-related concussion is a worldwide problem. There is a concern that an initial concussion can cause prolonged subclinical disturbances to sensorimotor function that increase the risk of subsequent injury. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether a history of sports-related concussion has effects on static and dynamic balance performance in adolescent rugby players. Hypothesis: Dynamic balance would be worse in players with a history of concussion compared with those with no history of concussion. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male adolescent rugby players aged 14 to 18 years from 5 schools were recruited before the start of the 2018-2019 playing season. Participants completed questionnaires and physical tests, including dynamic Y balance and single-leg static balance (eyes closed) tests, while performing single and dual tasks. Dynamic balance was assessed using inertial sensor instrumentation. Dependent variables were normalized reach distance and the sample entropy (SEn) of the 3 axes (x, y, and z). Results: Of the 195 participants, 100 reported a history of concussion. Those with a history of concussion demonstrated higher SEn in all directions, with highest values during anterior (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.4; 95% CI, 0.0-0.7; P = .027) and posteromedial (SMD, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9; P = .004) reach directions compared with those with no history. There was no difference between groups (concussion history vs control) in traditional Y balance reach distances in the anterior or posteromedial directions or single-leg static balance during both single- (P = .47) and dual-task (P = .67) conditions. Conclusion: Adolescent rugby union athletes with a history of concussion had poorer dynamic balance during performance tasks compared with healthy controls. Static single-leg balance tests, either single or dual task, may not be sensitive enough to detect sensorimotor deficits in those with a history of concussion.
  • Publication
    Deep Learning for Activity Recognition in Older People Using a Pocket-Worn Smartphone
    Activity recognition can provide useful information about an older individual’s activity level and encourage older people to become more active to live longer in good health. This study aimed to develop an activity recognition algorithm for smartphone accelerometry data of older people. Deep learning algorithms, including convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM), were evaluated in this study. Smartphone accelerometry data of free-living activities, performed by 53 older people (83.8 ± 3.8 years; 38 male) under standardized circumstances, were classified into lying, sitting, standing, transition, walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs. A 1D CNN, a multichannel CNN, a CNN-LSTM, and a multichannel CNN-LSTM model were tested. The models were compared on accuracy and computational efficiency. Results show that the multichannel CNN-LSTM model achieved the best classification results, with an 81.1% accuracy and an acceptable model and time complexity. Specifically, the accuracy was 67.0% for lying, 70.7% for sitting, 88.4% for standing, 78.2% for transitions, 88.7% for walking, 65.7% for walking downstairs, and 68.7% for walking upstairs. The findings indicated that the multichannel CNN-LSTM model was feasible for smartphone-based activity recognition in older people.
  • Publication
    Introduction
    (Brill, 2021-06-24) ;
    Unlike the Book of Causes and the (authentic) Aristotelian works, there is no evidence that the Elements of Theology was part of the curricula of European universities. There might be evidence of its teaching in the second half of the 14th century in the German mendicant studia, with the purpose to introduce novices to philosophy, as one can deduce by studying the diffusion of John Krosbein’s commentaries, or rather paraphrases, on all the Aristotelian works, as well as on the Book of Causes and the Elements of Theology. The anonymous commentary preserved in the MS Vat. lat. 456710 is also a paraphrase of Proclus’ Elements of Theology, chapter by chapter, which does not seem to have had a significant diffusion.
  • Publication
    Sine secundaria: Thomas d'Aquin, Siger de Brabant et les débats sur l'occasionalisme
    (Brill, 2019-05-15)
    Il est bien connu que les maîtres médiévaux commentaient en classes les textes de base à partir d’un certain nombre des questions standard, transmises des uns aux autres. La réduplication faisait partie des pratiques inhérentes à l’enseignement universitaire. Les variations que l’on observe parfois peuvent s’avérer porteuses d’innovation thématique et entraîner des bouleversements conceptuels et formels. En examinant plusieurs commentaires sur le Liber de causis, j’ai pu noter un changement dans la tradition exégétique postérieure à Siger de Brabant, notamment en ce qui concerne la compréhension du théorème I. Dans les commentaires antérieurs, les auteurs essaient principalement de définir le flux et d’expliquer comment une cause peut influencer davantage qu’une autre cause.
  • Publication
    Notes on Causes and the Noetic Triad
    (Brill, 2022-01-17)
    This third volume, like the preceding two, and indeed the entire conference, was not meant to constitute neither an introduction to nor an exhaustive synthesis on Proclean metaphysics and its diverse receptions. The main goal was to celebrate around an exceptional and enduring episode of the history of thought the dialogue between scholars from disciplines unjustly disaggregated in publications and conferences. Indeed, Marc and I sought to gather studies that because of their diversity and despite of their divergencies posititions could nurture the research on the entagled conceptual history of the Elements of Theology and the Book of Causes.
  • Publication
    Language Ideology Bias in Conversational Technology
    The beliefs that we have about language are called language ideologies and influence how we create and use language technologies. In this paper, we explore language ideologies and their role in the process of language technology design using conversational technology as an illustrative example. We draw on two qualitative studies, both of which aim at discovering common language conceptualisations in the context of language technology design through collaborative work with study participants. In study 1, we use a survey, group discussions and co-design methods with technology developers. In study 2, we use a survey and group work with technology users. We found that standard language ideology is intertwined with a referential (language in its function to convey information) view on language data in the development process, and that a conceptualization of language as referential tool dominates the language technology landscape. However, participants in both qualitative studies are aware of other functions of language. Further we found that language ideologies are intertwined with public discourse about language technology, and upcoming policies on AI regulation will reinforce these ideologies. We argue that non-referential functions of language must be integrated into language models, and that the actual practices of both language and language technologies must be carefully considered for improved conversational AI and effective policies.
  • Publication
    Recovery of ergosterol and vitamin D2 from mushroom waste - Potential valorization by food and pharmaceutical industries
    Background: A large amount of mushroom waste is generated during mushroom production (accounting for up to 20% of total production) and is mainly composed of mushrooms that do not meet the specifications set by retailers because of misshapen caps and/or stalks. Mushrooms are notable for their ergosterol (a precursor of vitamin D2) content which is converted to vitamin D2 after exposure to natural or artificial ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Therefore, mushroom waste could be used as a source for the recovery of both ergosterol and vitamin D2 which could be valorized by both pharmaceutical and food industries. Scope and approach: The current review presents a comprehensive summary of research performed regarding the extraction, purification and determination of ergosterol and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) from mushroom matrices. Additionally, studies related to the impact of sample preparation and especially of drying methods on the retention of ergosterol and vitamin D2 are presented. Finally, the potential valorization of mushroom waste sterols by food and pharmaceutical industries is discussed. Key findings and conclusions: Ergosterol and vitamin D2 contents vary among different mushroom species. Sample drying is a crucial step that precedes sterol extraction and has a significant impact on the retention of ergosterol and vitamin D2. The extraction of sterols from mushrooms can be conducted by either conventional (e.g., Soxhlet extraction) or non-conventional methods (e.g., ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), deep eutectic solvents (DES) extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE)) or their combination. The application of non-conventional methods such as UAE and MAE facilitate in shorter extraction times than the conventional methods. The valorization of mushroom extracts enriched in ergosterol and vitamin D2 by both pharmaceutical and food industries requires further work.
    Scopus© Citations 74
  • Publication
    High-Pressure Processing for the Production of Added-Value Claw Meat from Edible Crab (Cancer pagurus)
    High-pressure processing (HPP) in a large-scale industrial unit was explored as a means for producing added-value claw meat products from edible crab (Cancer pagurus). Quality attributes were comparatively evaluated on the meat extracted from pressurized (300 MPa/2 min, 300 MPa/4 min, 500 MPa/2 min) or cooked (92◦ C/15 min) chelipeds (i.e., the limb bearing the claw), before and after a thermal in-pack pasteurization (F9010 = 10). Satisfactory meat detachment from the shell was achieved due to HPP-induced cold protein denaturation. Compared to cooked or cooked– pasteurized counterparts, pressurized claws showed significantly higher yield (p < 0.05), which was possibly related to higher intra-myofibrillar water as evidenced by relaxometry data, together with lower volatile nitrogen levels. The polyunsaturated fatty acids content was unaffected, whereas the inactivation of total viable psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria increased with treatment pressure and time (1.1–1.9 log10 CFU g−1 ). Notably, pressurization at 300 MPa for 4 min resulted in meat with no discolorations and, after pasteurization, with high color similarity (∆E* = 1.2–1.9) to conventionally thermally processed samples. Following further investigations into eating quality and microbiological stability, these HPP conditions could be exploited for producing uncooked ready-to-heat or pasteurized ready-to-eat claw meat products from edible crab.
      3Scopus© Citations 6
  • Publication
    Novel Technologies for Preserving Ricotta Cheese: Effects of Ultraviolet and Near-Ultraviolet–Visible Light
    Ricotta cheese is a potential growth medium for a wide range of microorganisms. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV-C) and near-ultraviolet–visible light (NUV–vis) in microbial decontamination of ricotta artificially inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens. Cheese samples were stored at 4 ◦C, and microbiological and sensory analyses were performed for 9 days. From the microbiological point of view, control samples became unacceptable after less than 5 days, whereas ricotta treated by both UV-C and NUV–vis light remained acceptable for more than 6 days. Similar effects of UV-C and NUV–vis light were also recorded in terms of sensory quality. The shelf life of the samples subjected to the treatments was thus extended by 50%, suggesting the potential application of UV-C and NUV–vis light for cheese decontamination.
      4Scopus© Citations 19
  • Publication
    Increasing the Yield of Irish Brown Crab (Cancer pagurus) during Processing without Adversely Affecting Shelf-Life
    During the processing of Irish Brown Crab (Cancer pagurus), protein and moisture are released and losses up to 10% (by weight) are common. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of clean label ingredients to reduce this loss, without adversely affecting shelf-life or promoting the growth of spoilage bacteria. Following preliminary studies, 5% (w/v) sodium caseinate (SC) and (5%, w/v) potato starch (PS), with and without (0.5%, w/v) ascorbic acid (AA) were selected. Ninety crabs (30 per treatment) were soaked and boiled in water (control 1), AA (control 2), SC, PS, SC plus AA, or PS plus AA and analyzed for cook loss as well as pH, aw, water holding capacity (WHC), and microbial shelf-life (total viable count (TVC), total Enterobacteriaceae count (TEC), and spoilage bacteria) during 28 days storage at 4 ◦ C. On average, 11.1% of the control 1 weight was lost during processing. This was reduced to 8.0% when treated with AA (control 2) and to 3.5%, 4.7%, 5.8%, and 2.3% with SC, PS, SC plus AA, and PS plus AA, respectively. None of these treatments negatively impacted on shelf-life and similar growth curves were observed for TVC, TEC, Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and hydrogen disulphide producing bacteria, regardless of treatment. It was therefore concluded that, subject to sensory evaluation and validation under commercial conditions, these natural ingredients could be used to substantially increase the yield and hence commercial value of crab meat, without adversely affecting shelf-life.
      3Scopus© Citations 8
  • Publication
    The Effect of Ultraviolet Light on Microbial Inactivation and Quality Attributes of Apple Juice
    Non-thermal technologies such as UV irradiation can offer advantages for minimal processing of transparent beverages. In this study, reconstituted apple juice was exposed to UV light in a continuous laboratory scale system at energy dosages ranging from 2. 66 to 53. 10 J/cm 2 by changing the exposure time. Treated juices were then evaluated for microbial inactivation and selected physical and chemical attributes. Product quality was further assessed by sensory evaluation using a 30-member consumer panel. Microbiological analysis was performed by inoculating apple juice with Escherichia coli K12 and Listeria innocua and microbial numbers were counted pre- and post-processing. UV energy levels did not affect pH, °Brix, or total phenols content, but decreased non-enzymatic browning (p < 0.01) and antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05) compared to unprocessed juice. A colour-lightening effect was noted with increasing energy dose. All UV treatments applied (2.66 J/cm 2 and above) resulted in a reduction below the detection level (<1 log cfu/ml) for both E. coli and L. innocua in apple juice. Sensory evaluation showed that samples treated with energy dosages up to 10.62 J/cm 2 were comparable to the control in terms of acceptability, though higher dosages produced adverse effects in terms of flavour and colour. Based on these results, UV treatment with low energy dosages could represent a valid alternative to thermal processing to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms while maintaining quality in reconstituted apple juice.
      3Scopus© Citations 145
  • Publication
    Translating Yunus Emre, Translating the Self, Translating Islam: Zafer Şenocak's Turkish-German Path to Modernity
    (Bloomsbury Academic, 2021-01-14)
    The writer and public intellectual Zafer Şenocak (b. 1961 in Ankara) is well aware of the imbalances in today’s globalized literary markets. Mass migration is, however, bringing about processes of cultural crosspollination that challenge traditional ideas of center and periphery. If, with David Damrosch, we regard world literature as encompassing “all literary works that circulate beyond their culture of origin, either in translation or in their original language” (2003, 199), it can be argued that Turkish literature is increasingly playing such a role in Germany, where Turks currently form the largest ethnic minority (Statistisches Bundesamt 2018). As one-sided as the cultural exchanges between Germany and Turkey may appear, Şenocak’s own publications demonstrate that there is movement in both directions. He has written essays on Turkish and Ottoman literature, such as “Einen anderen Duft als den der Rose: Über türkische Volks- und Diwandichtung” (Another Scent than that of the Rose: On Turkish Folk and Divan Poetry, 1993), and he has translated the poetry of Pir Sultan Abdal (Şenocak 1988) and Yunus Emre (Yunus Emre 1986) into German. Moreover, his own literary and essayistic writing (in both German and Turkish) is inspired by authors and thinkers from both cultural spheres.
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  • Publication
    ‘Jeder Mensch ist eine Menschheit’: The Subject, Grievability and Community in Navid Kermani’s Dein Name
    (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-01)
    Navid Kermani’s novel Dein Name (2011) involves the narrator’s attempt to record in writing everything that happens to him from a certain date, be it thinking about literature, doing household chores, travelling abroad as a reporter, or honouring the deaths of acquaintances. As a whole, this giant novel conveys a multifaceted sense of subjectivity so fundamentally determined by its relationality that it must remain ungraspable. However, Kermani does not merely suggest a world of incommensurable differences, atomisation and alienation, even from ourselves; he also explores forms of openness to difference beyond hierarchical ideas of tolerance and integration. In this regard, the central role that others play in the formation of the narrator’s subjectivity and how this is marked by a series of obituaries leads to the radical re-evaluation of the lives that are deemed to be grievable. The relational understanding of subjectivity that Kermani conveys and the central role of grief in the novel resonate with the thinking of Judith Butler, whose writing on these topics also tries to understand how the subject is formed through multiple relations with others and what this means for an ethical understanding of community. The link between a de-centred understanding of the subject and grievability in Dein Name has implications for our understanding of cosmopolitanism, as, through an emphasis on the imagination and on creative engagement with the world, the novel tries to reconcile the lack of any fixed ground and stable meaning on the one hand, with the need for understanding and some form of ground, however contingent and contestable, on the other.
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  • Publication
    Francopolyphonies in translation
    (Liverpool University Press, 2016-12-01)
    Taking as its starting point Amin Maalouf’s conception of identity in Les Identités meurtrières (1998), this article will study francophonie from a translational perspective. Translation will be analysed as a linguistic transfer but also as a contact zone that brings out the alterity present in francophone texts and reveals their intrinsic plurality. Thus, translation will also be envisaged as a constitutive part of francophonie, whereby a monolingual understanding of French will give way to ‘francopolyphonies’, that is an intricate, relational space in which translation not only helps to voice polyphony, but also functions as a ‘métier à métisser’, as René Depestre puts it. While some texts will be studied as acts of self-translation, questioning the potential pitfalls of (self-)exoticism and assimilation for the francophone writer/translator, others will be analysed through a process of ‘unhoming’ French language and culture. Thus situated at the crossroads of cultural and linguistic encounters, translation will offer a transnational and translinguistic reading of francophonie, which will potentially lead to ‘franco-reciprocities’.
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  • Publication
    Variable Frames: Women Translating Cuban and (Afro-) Brazilian Women Writers for the French Literary Market
    (Universidad de Antioquia, 2020-08-24)
    This article seeks to examine how contemporary works of fiction and non-fiction by women from Cuba and Brazil are translated and marketed for Francophone readers. It will focus on Wendy Guerra’s novels, translated into French by Marianne Millon, and on contemporary Brazilian (non) fiction translated into French by Paula Anacaona, the head of Anacaona Éditions, a publishing outlet specialized in Brazilian literature for Francophone readers. The contribution will start with a brief presentation of the French publishing sector and some of the recurring patterns observed in what is often labeled as littérature étrangère or littérature monde (foreign literature and world literature, respectively), exploring various layers of intervention that appear in translated fiction. The article will then further explore the role of paratext in the marketing of Caribbean literatures for (non-)metropolitan French audiences, before it examines the translations of Todos se van and Domingo de Revolución by Cuban writer Wendy Guerra. Paratextual matter in Marianne Millon’s Tout le monde s’en va and Un dimanche de révolution will be analyzed as a site of feminine co-production, in which the author and the translator’s voices at times collide in unison and at others create dissonance. In the case of Domingo de revolución, the French translator’s practices will be compared to Cuban-American Achy Obejas’s English translation (Revolution Sunday), in the hope of highlighting varying degrees of cultural appropriation and/or acculturation, depending on the translator’s habitus and trajectory (Bourdieu) and her own background. These reflections will lead to a broader analysis of paratext as a site of further agency and potential redress as (Afro-) Brazilian history and literature are examined in works circulated by writer/translator/publisher Paula Anacaona. Ultimately, figures traditionally sidelined from hegemonic and patriarchal (his)stories, whose voices are restored in Anacaona’s paratextual practices, will serve as illustrations of feminine publishing practices that challenge (phallo-)centric models from the metropolis.
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  • Publication
    'Cari-beans’: Teaching Caribbean Literature in the Indian Ocean
    (University of Puerto Rico, 2019)
    This essay discusses the uses of and responses to pedagogical methodologies developed during an introductory course on contemporary Caribbean literature taught to undergraduate English majors at the Université de La Réunion. Offering a brief overview of La Réunion and the context of the course, it discusses students’ responses to a transversal approach adopted for the teaching of Caribbean literature. Trans-local readings of Caribbean and Indian Ocean histories invited students to analyze intersecting narratives of key topics such as resistance to enslavement. The parallel teaching and integration of translation seminars allowed for further exploration of the situatedness of Creole and non-Creole languages and generated strategies to transpose Caribbean and Indian Ocean specificities for various audiences. Student responses surfaced lingering legacies of (neo)colonialism in La Réunion, and suggest how the teaching of trans-pelagic connections can create spaces for their analysis and critique.
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