Now showing 1 - 10 of 43
  • Publication
  • Publication
    Regional characteristics, monetary union and regional income volatility
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2001-05)
    Relatively little attention has been paid to the issue of how individual regions will fare as a consequence of the national decision on whether or not to adopt the single European currency. Regional welfare is influenced by both mean income and volatility. The present paper focuses on volatility. We develop a model of a regionally-integrated macroeconomy to explore how the income variance implied by the national decision on EMU is distributed across a country's regions. The model suggests that weaker regions are likely to do better than stronger regions with respect to volatility if the national economy participates in EMU.
  • Publication
    Optimal factor and production subsidies under classical unemployment
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 1991-01)
    This paper appraises and compares the macroeconomic effects of three supply-side policies - namely employment, investment and production subsidies - within the context of a multisectoral two-period model of a small open economy with classical unemployment. Optimal subsidy levels are studied, a hierarchy of policies is derived, and policy rankings are shown to survive the introduction of common alternative specifications of the social welfare function.
  • Publication
    The state, venture capital and domestic high-tech start-ups in a late-developing economy : Ireland
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2006-12) ;
    Ireland, the “Celtic Tiger” economy of today, had for decades been one of the poorest of the Western European economies. This paper analyses the three-pronged approach of the Irish authorities in promoting successful high-tech start-up firms. An investment climate conducive to the emergence of such firms was first created. Emerging firms were then offered substantial public support in developing their capabilities. Finally, the authorities played a significant role in promoting the emergence of a dynamic venture capital industry. Such interventionist policies would have been highly unlikely to succeed in the absence of strong institutional capacity.
  • Publication
    Declining high-wage industries and structural adjustment policy
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 1989-04)
    In this paper a sector-specific disturbance generates unemployment that co-exists with relatively high wages in the adversely-affected industry. Previous analyses have interpreted this unemployment as "classical" in nature, assuming it to be caused by arbitrary wage rigidities, and have concluded that some degree of subsidization of the contracting sector is warranted on efficiency grounds. The present paper proposes an alternative "structural" explanation in which the privately-optimal response of workers and firms within a unionised high-wage industry leads to inefficiently low levels of labour transfer and a correspondingly high rate of sectoral unemployment. Subsidisation of the declining industry under these circumstances reduces efficiency. Several policies capable of achieving the optimal allocation of labour are explored, and the associated tax costs and income distributional effects analysed.
  • Publication
    Declining industries and monopoly unions : a further argument against protection
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 1995-02)
    Wage stickiness is frequently cited as a justification (temporary) protection when a sector is hit by an adverse shock. The present paper, rather than assuming arbitrary wage stickiness, instead models it as an outcome of monopoly union behaviour. It is shown that if intervention was not undertaken before the shock, because of a high marginal social cost of taxation, protection or subsidisation is even less appropriate after the shock occurs.
  • Publication
    Foreign direct investment, agglomerations and demonstration effects : an empirical investigation
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2001-03) ; ;
    Many previous studies have shown that the localisation of firms can be an important factor in attracting new foreign direct investment into a host country. What has been missing in this literature thus far, however, is an investigation into the reasons why industry clusters attract firms. We distinguish between “efficiency agglomerations” as firms locating close to each other because they can increase their efficiency by doing so, and “demonstration effects”, whereby existing firms send signals to new investors as to the reliability of the host country and newly entering firms follow previous firms. In this paper we try to disentangle these two effects, by examining the location of US and UK firms in Ireland. We calculate proxies for “efficiency agglomerations” and “demonstration effects” and include these proxies in an empirical model of the location decision of firms. For US firms, we find that both efficiency agglomeration and demonstration effects are important determinants of entry. For UK firms, however, the evidence is not as clear cut.
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  • Publication
    The Irish recovery 1987-90 : an economic miracle?
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 1991-10)
  • Publication
    Product characteristics and the growth of FDI
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2002-07) ; ;
    FDI and the activities of foreign affiliate firms have grown dramatically in recent decades, both in absolute terms and as a share of world GDP. Most explanations of this phenomenon focus on the impact of the macroeconomic environment on the choices facing individual firms over whether or not to engage in FDI. We focus instead on the characteristics of demand for the products produced in sectors known to be conducive to FDI. These characteristics are shown to help explain the recent growth in the FDI-to-GDP ratio.