Now showing 1 - 10 of 17
  • Publication
    Use of Power Flow Controllers to Enhance Transmission Network Utilisation on the Irish Transmission Network
    The Ireland and Northern Ireland power system is in a period of rapid transition from conventional generation to renewable generation and has seen a rapid increase in large demand sites requiring connection into the backbone transmission system. The role of EirGrid and SONI as Transmission System Operator in Ireland and Northern Ireland is to operate, maintain and develop the electricity transmission network. EirGrid ensure that new transmission projects are developed in a way that balances technical, economic, community and other stakeholder considerations. This has resulted in much more detailed evaluation of planning options to maximize utilisation of the existing network which may include but are not limited to uprating the capacity of the existing transmission system mainly through the thermal or voltage uprate of existing circuits. Another method to increase network utilisation is to strategically deploy Power Flow Control devices to relieve system overloads and maximise network transfer capacities. EirGrid has developed a new grid development strategy which places particular emphasis on identifying technologies to help resolve network issues. This paper presents the study findings for application of power flow controller (PFC) to relieve system issues.
  • Publication
    The role of personality disorder in 'difficult to reach' patients with depression: Findings from the ODIN study
    Individuals with personality disorders (especially paranoid personality disorder) tend to be reluctant to engage in treatment. This paper aimed to elucidate the role of personality disorder in predicting engagement with psychological treatment for depression. The Outcomes of Depression International Network (ODIN) involves six urban and three rural study sites throughout Europe at which cases of depression were identified through a two-stage community survey. One patient in seven who was offered psychological treatment for depression had a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder (most commonly paranoid personality disorder). Forty-five percent of patients who were offered psychological treatment for depression did not complete treatment. The odds of completion were higher for patients with a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder, especially paranoid, anxious or dependent personality disorder. The relatively low number of cases with some specific personality disorders (e.g. schizoid personality disorder) limited the study's power to reach conclusions about these specific disorders. This study focused on a community-based sample which may lead to apparently lower rates of engagement when compared to studies based on treatment-seeking populations. Episodes of depression in the context of personality disorder may represent a valuable opportunity to engage with patients who might otherwise resist engagement.
      380Scopus© Citations 3
  • Publication
    Experiences of Using Prezi in Psychiatry Teaching
    Objective: Prezi is a presentation software allowing lecturers to develop ideas and produce mind maps as they might do on an old-style blackboard. This study examines students’ experience of lectures presented using Prezi to identify the strengths and weaknesses of this new teaching medium. Methods: Prezi was used to present mental health lectures to final-year medical and physiotherapy students. These lectures were also available online. This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire to assess students’ experience of the software. Results: Of students approached, 75.5 % (74/98) took part in the study. A majority, 98.6 % (73/74), found Prezi to be a more engaging experience than other styles of lecture delivery. The overview or 'mind map' provided by Prezi was found to be helpful by 89.2 % (66/74). Problems arose when students used Prezi in their personal study, with 31.1 % (23/74) reporting some difficulties, mostly of a technical nature. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential of Prezi for providing students with an engaging and stimulating educational experience. For Prezi to be effective, however, the lecturer has to understand and be familiar with the software and its appropriate use.
      834Scopus© Citations 7
  • Publication
    Factors associated with suicidal ideation in the general population : Five-centre analysis from the ODIN study
    (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2006) ; ; ;
    Background: Very few studies have examined the cross-national prevalence of suicidal ideation in the general population or variables associated with it. Aims: To examine the risk factors for suicidal ideas in the general population. Method: As part of a five-country two stage epidemiological study of depressive disorder (the ODIN study) a random sample of over 12 000 people were screened using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). There followed detailed analysis of item 9 of the BDI, which measured the severity of suicidal ideation. Results: Age, marriage, concern by others and severity of depressed mood independently increased or decreased the odds of suicidal ideation overall. An interaction between life events and social supports was identified, although this differed between men and women. Only concern by others and severity of depression were independently associated with serious suicidal ideation. The study does not allow for interpretation of the direction of the association. Conclusions: A number of social, clinical and demographic variables were independently associated with all suicidal ideation and with serious suicidal ideation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether these are risk factors for or the result of suicidal ideation or have some other relationship.
      376Scopus© Citations 100
  • Publication
    Distinguishing between adjustment disorder and depressive episode in clinical practice: The role of personality disorder
    Background: There is significant symptomatic overlap between diagnostic criteria for adjustment disorder and depressive episode, commonly leading to diagnostic difficulty. Our aim was to clarify the role of personality in making this distinction. Methods: We performed detailed assessments of features of personality disorder, depressive symptoms, social function, social support, life-threatening experiences and diagnosis in individuals with clinical diagnoses of adjustment disorder (n=173) or depressive episode (n=175) presenting at consultation-liaison psychiatry services across 3 sites in Dublin, Ireland. Results: Fifty six per cent of participants with adjustment disorder had likely personality disorder compared with 65% of participants with depressive episode. Compared to participants with depressive episode, those with adjustment disorder had fewer depressive symptoms; fewer problems with social contacts or stress with spare time; and more life events. On multi-variable testing, a clinical diagnosis of adjustment disorder (as opposed to depressive episode) was associated with lower scores for personality disorder and depressive symptoms, and higher scores for life-threatening experiences. Limitations: We used clinical diagnosis as the main diagnostic classification and generalisability may be limited to consultation-liaison psychiatry settings. Conclusions: Despite a substantial rate of likely personality disorder in adjustment disorder, the rate was even higher in depressive episode. Moreover, features of likely personality disorder are more strongly associated with depressive episode than adjustment disorder, even when other distinguishing features (severity of depressive symptoms, life-threatening experiences) are taken into account.
      1212Scopus© Citations 13
  • Publication
    National survey of psychiatrists' responses to implementation of the Mental Health Act 2001 in Ireland
    (Springer for the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland, 2010-06) ; ;
    Background: Ireland’s Mental Health Act 2001 resulted in substantial changes to mental health services and the process of involuntary admission. Aims: To determine the views of Irish psychiatrists regarding the new legislation, 1 year after full implementation. Methods: We sent questionnaires to all 735 members of the Royal College of Psychiatrists in Ireland. Results: The response rate was 43.7%. As much as 84% of respondents reported satisfaction with training; 69.1% reported increased workloads; 26.8% reported decreased time with service-users; 40.7% reported changes in relationships with service-users (e.g. increased empathy, but more legalistic, conflicted relationships). Almost one in three (27.4%) stated that it was not feasible to implement the Mental Health Act. Negative comments highlighted the adversarial nature of mental health tribunals, effects on therapeutic relationships and issues related to children. Conclusions: The implementation of the Mental Health Act 2001 has resulted in increased workloads, more conflicted relationships with service-users and adversarial mental health tribunals.
      593Scopus© Citations 23
  • Publication
    Can adjustment disorders and depressive episodes be distinguished? Results from ODIN
    Background: No large-scale epidemiological study has included adjustment disorders (AD) for consideration yet it is considered to be a common psychiatric diagnosis. Methods:Using a two stage screening method, those above a threshold score for possible caseness on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), were interviewed using SCAN to identify those with depressive episode and AD. Variables that might distinguish AD from depressive episode were examined. Results:The prevalence of AD was extremely low with one centre having no cases. Finland, the country with the highest prevalence, only achieved a frequency of 0.8% and 1%, respectively, for urban and rural sites. Logistic regression failed to identify any variables that independently differentiated AD from depressive episode. Findings relating to severity of symptoms using BDI were robust. Limitations: The small sample size might have contributed to a failure to identify distinguishing features between AD and other disorders. Conclusions:Reasons for the failure of even robust results, such as BDI severity, to distinguish AD from depressive episode are considered of which problems in conceptualising AD are the most likely. Further studies are required.
      600Scopus© Citations 85
  • Publication
    The prevalence of suicidal ideation in the general population: results from the Outcome of Depression International Network (ODIN) study
    (D. Steinkopff-Verlag (Springer), 2008-04) ; ; ;
    Background: Suicidal ideation is believed to be part of a constellation of suicidal behaviours that culminates in suicide. There is little information on the cross-national prevalence of all suicidal ideation or of serious suicidal ideation in spite of its likely public health importance. Methods: A two-stage screening approach of over 12,000 adults from the general population were evaluated by face to face interview to identify those meeting ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorders at eight sites in five European countries. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of item 9 (suicidal ideation) of the Beck depression inventory from the total screened sample. Results: The standardised period prevalence for all suicidal ideation varied from 1.1 to 19.8% while for serious suicidal ideation there was much less variation. Examining the inter-relationships between all suicide ideation, serious suicide ideation, depressive disorders and suicide failed to support a seamless transition from suicide ideation through depression and serious ideation to suicide. Conclusions: Strategies to prevent suicide should be tailored to take account of site specific differences in its aetiology and understanding the path from suicidal ideation through depression to suicide is crucial to this.
      782Scopus© Citations 72
  • Publication
    Written information on bipolar affective disorder: the patients' perspective
    Aims and method: The mental health information available to people with bipolar affective disorder is variable in quality. We conducted a qualitative survey in an urban out-patient department to elicit the opinions of people with bipolar affective disorder on the written information provided by three health information providers.Results: Participants’ responses were generally positive for each leaflet. The two leaflets rated highest by participants used quality assurance tools. However, 20-30% had difficulty understanding the leaflets. Medical jargon and verbosity were common criticisms. Clinical implications: Professional bodies such as the Royal College of Psychiatrists play an important role in providing patients with written information. Quality assurance standards should be used in the production of patient information. A tool measuring individuals’ appraisal of information may ensure information is appropriate to their requirements.
      299Scopus© Citations 1
  • Publication
    What do you think of us? Evaluating patient knowledge of and satisfaction with a psychiatric outpatient service
    (Springer for the Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland, 2011-03) ; ; ;
    Aim: This study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with the care they were receiving; examine patients' knowledge of the psychiatric services in general; and identify variables associated with satisfaction. Methods: Patients attending the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital psychiatric outpatient clinics over a 13-week period, and the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital clozapine clinic over a 4-week period and were invited to complete the Barker Scale of Patients' Views Towards Care Received From Psychiatrists. Results: One-hundred and ninety-two patients were invited to participate and there was a response rate of 94%. Eighty-six percent of respondents were satisfied with their care; 92% stated psychiatrists were caring towards them; 85% that psychiatrists know what they are doing; 84% that their illness was explained by their psychiatrist; and 65% that psychiatric care is improving; but 65% stated that psychiatric services are still not good enough. Eighty-six percent were, or had been, in receipt of a psychological treatment. On multi-variable analysis, satisfaction was associated with the view that doctors explained treatment clearly, the view that doctors do not rely excessively on medication, and having been visited by a community mental health nurse. Conclusion: Patients attending psychiatry outpatient services reported a high degree of satisfaction with the treatment they were receiving, although there were discrepancies between satisfaction with their own specific service and with psychiatric services in general.
      266Scopus© Citations 10