Now showing 1 - 10 of 49
  • Publication
    Royale with cheese : the effect of globalization on the variety of goods
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2010-07) ;
    The key result of the so-called “New Trade Theory” is that countries gain from falling trade costs by an increase in the number of varieties available to consumers. Though the number of varieties in a given country rises, it is also true that global variety decreases from increased competition wherein imported varieties drive out some local varieties. This second result is a major issue for anti-trade activists who criticize the move towards free trade as promoting “homogenization” or “Americanization” of varieties across countries. We present a model of endogenous entry with heterogeneous firms which models this concern in two ways: a portion of a consumer’s income is spent overseas (i.e. tourism) and an existence value (a common tool in environmental economics where simply knowing that a species exists provides utility). Since lowering trade costs induces additional varieties to export and drives out some non-exported varieties, these modifications result in welfare losses not accounted for in the existing literature. Nevertheless, it is only through the existence value that welfare can fall as a result of declining trade barriers. Thus, for these criticisms of globalization to dominate, it must be that this loss in the existence value outweighs the direct benefits from consumption.
  • Publication
    The Infant Industry Argument: Tariffs, NTMs and Innovation
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2017-01) ;
    One rationale for the infant industry argument is that, by protecting domestic firms from foreign competition, this increases rents and investment in innovation and other growth enhancing measures. Using data on 4,750 firms across 13 developing countries, we examine whether protection via tariffs or non-tariff measures (SPS and TBT specifically) increase innovation in either products or processes. We find no such evidence; instead we find a small negative impact of protection, particularly tariffs and TBTs, on innovation.
  • Publication
    The Real Effects of Tax Havens
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2023-10) ; ; ;
    It is common to summarize the impact of tax havens as a shift of tax revenues from high to low-tax jurisdictions. This chapter discusses the economic impact of tax havens that goes beyond a zero-sum transfer of the tax base, what we label real effects. We review the literature and focus on exploring how profit shifting affects employment, investment, and innovation in firms. We consider in turn how real effects shape market structure and their implications in general equilibrium. In conclusion, we propose some potential pathways for future research in terms of methodology and areas that we deem promising for further exploration.
  • Publication
    Location Decisions of Non-Bank Financial Foreign Direct Investment: Firm-Level Evidence from Europe
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2015-11) ;
    The non-bank financial sector in the euro area has more than doubled in size over the last decade reflecting the substantial growth in shadow banking activities. However, a large proportion of the non-bank financial sector remains unmapped as granular balance sheet information is not available for almost half of the sector. Motivated by these data gaps and employing firm-level data, this paper examines the location decisions of newly incorporated foreign affiliates in the non-bank financial sector across 27 European countries over the period 2004 to 2012. The probability of a country being chosen as the location for a new foreign affiliate is found to be negatively associated with higher corporate tax rates and geographic distance but increases with the size and financial development of the host country. The financial regulatory regime in the host country and gravity related controls such as the home and host country sharing a common legal system, language, border and currency are also found to impact the likelihood of non-bank financial FDI.
  • Publication
    Tariff-induced transfer pricing and the CCCTB
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2013-09)
    The common consolidated corporate tax base has been suggested as a way to curb tax avoidance by allocating profits across borders via a formula. This paper demonstrates that when transfer pricing occurs both for tariff and tax minimization, that moving from separate accounting to formula apportionment can actually increase transfer pricing. This, combined with arm's length pricing regulations, can result in lower revenues for high-tax countries and lower overall revenues. This casts additional doubt over whether such a move would have its intended, revenue-enhancing effects.
  • Publication
    Tax competition in an expanding European Union
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2008-11) ;
    This paper empirically examines whether expansion of the EU has increased international tax competition. To do so, we use a simple model of tax competition to determine how a given country weights the taxes of others when choosing its own tax. This indicates that the market potential of a country (which includes both domestic consumption and exports) is the appropriate weight. This is an improvement on the adhoc and often endogenous weighting schemes used elsewhere. Unlike those studies, we find robust evidence for tax competition. In particular, our estimates suggest that EU membership affects responses with EU members responding more to the tax rates of other members. This lends credence to the above-noted concerns.
  • Publication
    Economic Integration and the Optimal Corporate Tax Structure with Heterogeneous Firms
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2011-08) ; ;
    We study the optimal combination of corporate tax rate and tax base in a model of a small open economy with heterogeneous firms. We show that it is optimal for the small country's government to effectively subsidize capital inputs by granting a tax allowance in excess of the true costs of capital. Economic integration reduces the optimal capital subsidy and drives low-productivity firms from the small country's home market, replacing them with high-productivity exporters from abroad. This endogenous policy response creates a selection effect that increases the average productivity of home firms when trade barriers fall, in addition to the well-known direct effects.
  • Publication
    Knocking on Tax Haven’s Door: Multinational Firms and Transfer Pricing
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2014-12) ; ; ;
    This paper analyzes the transfer pricing of multinational firms. We propose a simple framework in which intra-firm prices may systematically deviate from arm’s length prices for two motives: i) pricing to market, and ii) tax avoidance. Multinational firms may decide not to avoid taxes if the risk to be sanctioned is high compared to the tax gap. Using detailed French firm-level data on arm’s length and intra-firm export prices, we find that both mechanisms are at work. The sensitivity of intra-firm prices to foreign taxes is reinforced once we control for pricing-to-market determinants. Most importantly, we find almost no evidence of tax avoidance if we disregard exports to tax havens. Back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest that tax avoidance through transfer pricing amounts to about 1% of the total corporate taxes collected by tax authorities in France. The lion’s share of this loss is driven by the exports of 450 firms to ten tax havens. As such, it may be possible to achieve significant revenue increases with minimal cost by targeting enforcement.
  • Publication
    Regional knowledge spaces: the interplay of entry-relatedness and entry-potential for technological change and growth
    This paper aims to uncover the mechanism of how the network properties of regional knowledge spaces contribute to technological change from the perspective of regional knowledge entry-relatedness and regional knowledge entry-potential. Entry-relatedness, which has been previously employed to investigate the technology evolution of regional economies, is advanced by introducing a knowledge gravity model. The entry-potential of a newly acquired regional specialisation has been largely ignored in the relevant literature; surprisingly given the high relevance that is attributed to the recombination potential of new capabilities. In other words, just adding new knowledge domains to a system is not sufficient alone, it really depends on how these fit into the existing system and thus can generate wider economic benefits. Based on an empirical analysis of EU-15 Metro and non-Metro regions from 1981 to 2015, we find that entry-relatedness has a significant negative association with novel inventive activities, while entry-potential has a significant positive association with the development of novel products and processes of economic value. This highlights that regions’ capacity to venture into high-potential areas of technological specialization in the knowledge space outperforms purely relatedness driven diversification that is frequently promoted in the relevant literature.
      62Scopus© Citations 9
  • Publication
    The Impact of Special Economic Zones on Electricity Intensity of Firms
    (University College Dublin. School of Economics, 2016-10) ; ;
    In light of concerns over the environmental impact of Special Economic Zones located in developing countries, where environmental regulation is weak, we analyse the electricity intensity of firms in SEZs. We use firm level data from Africa and Asia, and we find that SEZ firms have higher electricity intensity as opposed to non-SEZ firms. If they also face higher fiscal, financial or environmental regulations, the electricity intensity of firms in SEZs increases by a greater rate as opposed to non-SEZ firms. As such, establishing SEZs may have significant environmental implications.